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The original Sanskrit verses and
(word for word translated) of the
Mahâbhârata, Bhîshma Parva ch. 23-40.

with comments taken from the writings of



 

 

 

 

'Na Tapaamsi Na Teerthaanaam
Na Saastra Na Japaanahi
Samsaara Saagaroddhaare
Sajjanam Sevanam Vina'

Not by penance or pilgrimage,
nor by study of scriptures or repetition of God's name;
But the ocean of birth and death can be crossed only by
serving the pious and the needy.

1 2a 2b 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18a 18b

 

Chapter 6
The Yoga of Meditation
'About the nature of yoga and reincarnation'
'Âtmâ Samyamana Yoga'
 

 

  

   

     " Listen to this chapter sung!  "
[slokas
chapter 6a (verses 1 & 2, 5 to 8),
slokas
chapter 6b (verses 28 to 36)]

" Listen to this spoken chapter in Audio "

 

     The sixth chapter of the Gîtâ is titled 'Âtmâ Samyama Yoga' or the "yoga of controlling the Âmâ". This is a misnomer, inasmuch as it is neither necessary nor possible to control the immaculate, eternal embodiment of the truth - the âtmâ. The word Âtmâ in this chapter of the Gîtâ has been used to denote the mind. In the Âtmâ Samyama Yoga, the art of mind control is dealt with in elaborate detail. Dhyana (meditation) is mentioned here as the principal means to achieve control over the mind.

In the âtmâ samyama, Krishna emphasizes the need for maintaining absolute cleanliness at the place where meditation is practiced. It is not your house or the forest that is to be kept clean, but the immediate surroundings of the place where you perform meditation should be kept clean. The jîva dwells in the body, while the Lord resides in the heart. Therefore, since meditation is not so much performed in external environs as it is within the heart - it being an internal process - it is more vital to rid the heart of all impurities and render it a fit abode for God. In our daily lives, when we have to sit somewhere, we choose a clean place and cover the ground with a handkerchief or a newspaper. Such being the care we take in cleaning a place to sit for ourselves, the need for keeping the heart clean, to seat the Lord therein, and to achieve the purpose of meditation is all the more important. The necessity for man to cleanse the heart arises because of the taints of tamas (mode of ignorance, darkness and slowness) and rajas (mode of passion) that have been associated with him over several births. - Summer Showers in Brindavan 1979, p. 80

 

 

Verse 1.

s'rî bhagavân uvâca
anâs'rîtah karma-phalam
kâryam karma karoti yah
sa sannyâsî ca yogî ca
na niragnir na câkriyah

     "Know the Brahman; take up all tasks but renounce the consequences; giving up the fruit of activity is far superior to the giving up of activity itself. Karma-yoga is far superior to karma-sannyâsah."

"Well. Superior to both these is dhyana-yoga. I shall tell you why. Dhyana needs the support of karma-yoga, so karma-yoga was first taught to you. Those who renounce the fruits while actively engaged in karma are very dear to Me; they are the true sannyâsîs, the real renouncers. I have no affection for those who give up the ritual fire and desist from all activity except eating, sleeping and craving for sensory pleasures and behave like Kumbhakarnas [A brother of Râvana, who faught against Râma and attained liberation (RRV2-2 - RRV2-6b - RRV2-8b)] kinsmen, idling and wasting their time. I am unapproachably far from idlers." - Gîtâ Vahini, pp. 88-9

Verse 2.

yam sannyâsam iti prâhur
yogam tam viddhi pândava
na hy asannyâsta-sankalpo
yogî bhavati kas'cana

     He who has not renounced the pursuit of wishes can never become a yogî, however busy he may be in sâdhana. Only he who is careful not to get entangled in the senses and who is unattached to the consequences of his deeds can become a sarva-sanga-parithyâgi (renouncer of all attachments). - Gîtâ Vahini, p. 89

Verse 3.

ârurukshor muner yogam
karma kâranam ucyate
yogârűdhasya tasyaiva
s'amah kâranam ucyate

Verse 4.

yadâ hi nendriyârtheshu
na karmasv anushajjate
sarva-sankalpa-sannyâsî
yogârűdhas tadocyate

     Give up the idea that you are the doer and the beneficiary. You can do this by dedicating both deed and fruit to the Lord. Then no sin can affect you, for you are not the doer, and the deed must perforce be holy. Like oil on the tongue, collyrium on the eye, and a lotus leaf on water, the deed is with you but not of you.

Whatever you do or hear or see, you remain unaffected, devoid of deeds, innocent of listening or seeing. The joy derived from the external world opens the gateways of grief; it is fleeting; but you are eternal, the very source of bliss, above and beyond all this, the âtmâ swarűpa itself. You are unrelated to these activities that are called deeds and these consequences that you now mistake as real. You are not the doer; you are just the witness, the see-er! - Gîtâ Vahini, p. 88

Verse 5.

uddhared âtmanâtmânam
nâtmânam avasâdayet
âtmaiva hy âtmano bandhur
âtmaiva ripur âtmanah

Verse 6.

bandhur âtmâtmanas tasya
yenâtmaivâtmanâ jitah
anâtmanas tu s'atrutve
vartetâtmaiva s'atruvat

     If the mind is not under control and amenable to one's orders, it can become one's greatest foe. So live in solitude so that you can master the senses. A horse without reins, a bull unused to the yoke, and a sadhaka whose senses are not mastered are like a river without water. Such sâdhana is a waste. - Gîtâ Vahini, p. 89

Verse 7.

jitâtmanah pras'ântasya
paramâtmâ samâhitah
s'îtoshna-sukha-duhkheshu
tathâ mânâpamânayoh

     The tree of prakriti (nature) and the branches of desires wither away only when the mind, the root, is destroyed. - Summer Showers in Brindavan 1979, p. 74

Verse 8.

jńâna-vijńâna-triptâtmâ
kűthastho vijitendriyah
yukta ity ucyate yogî
sama-loshthrâs'ma-kâńcanah

Verse 9.

suhrin-mitrâry-udâsîna-
madhyastha-dveshya-bandhushu
sâdhushv api ca pâpeshu
sama-buddhir visis'hyate

Verse 10.

yogî yuńjîta satatam
âtmânam rahasi sthitah
ekâkî yata-cittâtmâ
nirâs'îr aparigrahah

     It is a pity that even extremely learned pundits at the present time are unaware of the thrill of putting into practice a single word of the Gîtâ. What then are we to say of the unlearned, the ignorant? In short, even some very reputed exponents of the Gîtâ are playing false to its teaching, acting contrary to the message. To the Song of the Lord, each one adds a fancy note of his own to demonstrate his special twist in scholarship, or his favorite predilection. Let us consider one example of this type: The 10th verse of the 6th chapter of the Gîtâ declares that parigraha is a great sin [the opposite word aparigrahah means 'free from desires and feelings of possessiveness'].

Now those who accept the Gîtâ as authority should act accordingly, avoiding parigraha, is it not so? Parigraha means 'accepting' even for the upkeep of the body and the maintenance of dharma! These pracharaks, however, do accept, 99 percent of them! The condemnation of parigraha applies to all forms; there are no modifying circumstances or exceptions. Yet, collections and contributions are asked for Gîtâ-yajńas, as 'offering' during harathi, as expenses for the Gîtâ pracharaka sanghas, as nazar (gift in Urdu-language) or kanuka for the guru; lectures are 'sold' for tickets, as entertainment (like the drama and cinema) is sold. People who do this have no faith in the words of Krishna; for had they the faith, they would not have behaved in such contrary ways. If they were convinced that it is wrong, they would not be tempted to act so. They explain the sloka and feel that their duty is done; they do not feel the need to follow the advice. That is the spirit of the times, for this is the age of hypocrisy. People who watch this type of Gîtâ prachar lose faith first in the pracharak and, later, in the Gîtâ itself. The publicity dissolves into mere pomp and vanity. - Gîtâ Vahini, pp. 161-2
*parigraha: according to M.W.-sanskrit dictionary: getting, attaining, possession, property, being possessed of; taking, accepting, receiving or anything received.

Verse 11-12.

s'ucau des'e pratishthhâpya
sthiram âsanam âtmanah
nâty-ucchritam nâtinîcam
cailâjina-kus'ottaram

tatraikâgram manah kritvâ
yata-cittendriya-kriyah
upavis'yâsane yuńjyâd
yogam âtma-vis'uddhaye


chin-mudra

      One should adopt a comfortable posture for dhyana. The common practice is to sit, with the hands in chin-mudra and the legs crossed, on a wooden plank covered with a soft skin or cloth. These are all, however, part of dharana (concentration, fixed attention). Dhyana begins with the process of gradual identification with the Lord and leads to samâdhi. - Summer Showers in Brindavan 1979, p. 88

Verse 13-14.

samam kâya-s'iro-grivam
dhârayann acalam sthirah
samprekshya nâsikâgram svam
dis'as' cânavalokayan

pras'ântâtmâ vigata-bhîr
brahmacâri-vrate sthitah
manah samyamya mac-citto
yukta âsîta mat-parah

     The method of dhyanam: The place should be a little elevated from the ground; that is an inch or two high. Place a mat of darbha grass on it, spread a deer-skin on the mat, and have a thin white cloth laid on the skin. Upon this seat one should sit, adopting the padmasana pose (lotus-like posture). The right foot must be above the left and the left foot above the right. The fingers of the hand must be in close touch with one another and the hands should be placed in front. The eyes must be either half-opened or fully closed. Then by means of mental massage, the neck, the shoulders, the hands, the chest, the teeth, the stomach, the fingers, the back, the thighs, the knees, the calves and the feet should be relaxed. After this, one has to meditate on one's own favorite name and form with OM added. When this is being done, there should be no mental wanderings; one must be stable and quiet. No thought of past events, no trace of anger or hatred and no memory of sorrow should be allowed to interfere. Even if they intrude, they should not be considered at all; to counteract them, one must entertain thoughts that feed one's enthusiasm for dhyanam. Of course, this may appear difficult at first. The best time for dhyanam is the quiet hours before dawn, between 3 and 5 a.m. - Dhyana Vahini, p. 7

Verse 15.

yuńjann evam sadâtmânam
yogî niyata-mânasah
s'ântim nirvâna-paramâm
mat-samsthâm adhigacchati

     The mind derives its Sanskrit name manas because it is constantly engaged in the process of manana or thinking. Impulses are generated in the mind. Very often, however, the mind is led astray by conflicting impulses that are generated in it. The fickle nature of the mind acts as an impediment to man's spiritual progress and, therefore, it is imperative that every spiritual aspirant gains control over his mind if he were to drench himself in the delight of the soul. - Summer Showers in Brindavan 1979, p. 79

     "So arise, Arjuna! Practice dhyana-yoga. Resolve to master the senses through this yoga and follow it steadily, systematically, regularly, at a stated time and in a stated place, without changing them as the whim takes you. A regular system is essential for this Yoga. Observe it strictly. Do not alter as fancy dictates; that will bring about dire consequences." - Gîtâ Vahini, pp. 91-2

Verse 16.

nâtyas'natas tu yogo 'sti
na caikântam anas'natah
na câti svapna-s'îlasya
jâgrato naiva cârjuna

     "For those who eat too much and get exhausted with the task of assimilating it, for those who eat less and suffer from exhaustion, for those who sleep too much or too little, for those who indulge in dhyana according to 'convenience' (that is to say, those who do it for long hours one day, because they have no other work, and do just token dhyana the next day, because they have lots of work), and for those who give free rein to the six inner enemies (kâma, krodha, and the rest), for those who do not confer joy on parents, and specially the mother - more than these, for those who entertain doubt and have little faith in the Lord, or in the guru, whom they have chosen and installed in their hearts - dhyana will yield no fruit at all." - Gîtâ Vahini, p. 90

Verse 17.

yuktâhâra-vihârasya
yukta-ceshthasya karmasu
yukta-svapnâvabodhasya
yogo bhavati duhkha-hâ

     The Gîtâ speaks of yuktâhâra-vihârasya, habits of feeding and recreation that are controlled and regulated. The gross part of food is discarded as feces, the subtle part is transformed into muscle, blood, etc., and the more subtle of the subtle aspects are transmuted into the mind and its activities. That is why the sages have prescribed certain limits and levels of food, in order to promote the spiritual urges and prevent contrary tendencies. - Sathya Sai Speaks IX, pp. 127-8

     There should be discipline and regulation in life in accordance with self-imposed constraints. These self-imposed constraints constitute the tapas of an individual. An unrestrained life is an immoral life. The wind and the sea and also the other phenomena obey the universal laws of nature. The earth rotates round its own axis and revolves around the sun periodically. These uniformities in the universe are the laws ordained by God. They are obeyed by the macrocosm as well as the microcosm. The laws of nature ordained by God are necessary for creating and sustaining the universe, and for maintaining its dynamic equilibrium.

Such self-imposed discipline is conducive to real santhi - peace of mind, poise, equanimity, and stable equilibrium of the mind. Peace of mind is the most desirable thing in this world. It gives us physical and psychical euphoria. - Summer Showers in Brindavan 1979, p. 91

Verse 18.

yadâ viniyatam cittam
âtmany evâvatishthhate
nisprihah sarva-kâmebhyo
yukta ity ucyate tadâ

Verse 19.

yathâ dîpo nivâtastho
nengate sopamâ smritâ
yogîno yata-cittasya
yuńjato yogam âtmanah

     "The mind of the yoga adept should be like the steady upright unshaken flame of a lamp, kept in a windless windowsill. Whenever the slightest sign of unsteadiness occurs, you should endeavor to curb the mind and not allow it to wander. Develop the consciousness that you are in all and the feeling of oneness that all is in you. Then, you will take up and succeed in all the yogas. Then you are free from all distinctions like 'I' and 'others', or as 'âtmâ and paramâtmâ'. The joy and grief of others will become equally yours. You can then never harm others; then all can be loved and adored in the awareness that they are sarveswara ["the Lord of all"]."Lord Krishna declared that those who have attained this vision are really the supremest yogîs. - Gîtâ Vahini, p. 90

Verse 20-23.

yatroparamate cittam
niruddham yoga-sevayâ
yatra caivâtmanâtmânam
pas'yann âtmani tushyati

sukham âtyantikam yat tad
buddhi-grâhyam atîndriyam
vetti yatra na caivâyam
sthitas' calati tattvatah

yam labdhvâ câparam lâbham
manyate nâdhikam tatah
yasmin sthito na duhkhena
gurunâpi vicâlyate

tam vidyâd duhkha-samyoga-
viyogam yoga-samjńitam

     Man may be compared to a machine with the intelligence, the mind, the senses, and the body as its different components. Just as the various parts of the body work in coordination with one another to keep the physical mechanism of the body in order, the various faculties in man should work in harmony with one another to ensure that the atmic radiance is reflecting in their functioning and that man's life is full of divine light and joy. - Summer Showers in Brindavan 1979, p. 74

Verse 24.

sa nis'cayena yoktavyo
yogo 'nirvinna-cetasâ
sankalpa-prabhavân kâmâms
tyaktvâ sarvân as'eshatah
manasaivendriya-grâmam
viniyamya samantatah

Verse 25.

s'anaih s'anair uparamed
buddhyâ dhriti-grihîtayâ
âtma-samstham manah kritvâ
na kińcid api cintayet

     Buddhi is directly influenced by the âtmâ. Therefore, if the mind follows the buddhi it will be able to lead the senses along the right path. So Krishna advised Arjuna not to follow the mind, which, left to itself, is prone to succumbing to the pulls of sensory pleasures, but instead, to subjugate it to the intelligence. - Summer Showers in Brindavan 1979, p. 75

Verse 26.

yato yato nis'calati
manas' cańcalam asthiram
tatas tato niyamyaitad
âtmany eva vas'am nayet

Verse 27.

pras'ânta-manasam hy enam
yogînam sukham uttamam
upaiti s'ânta-rajasam
brahma-bhűtam akalmasham

     One does not have to search for Brahman in some distant place. One should find Brahman in one's daily life in all things from the smallest thing that one comes across to the biggest thing that one sees. If, with some reason and with some depth, we make an enquiry, there is a chance of finding Brahman in our own heart and within ourselves. Provided we get into a state of meditation, we can enjoy the bliss of recognizing Brahman everywhere. If the mind is made steady and unwavering, we can enjoy the permanent bliss and see the aspect of Brahman. - Summer Showers in Brindavan 1974, p. 55

Verse 28.

yuńjann evam sadâtmânam
yogî vigata-kalmashah
sukhena brahma-samspars'am
atyantam sukham as'nute

Verse 29.

sarva-bhűta-stham âtmânam
sarva-bhűtâni câtmani
îkshate yoga-yukta-âtmâ
sarvatra sama-dars'anah

Verse 30.

yo mâm pas'yati sarvatra
sarvam ca mayi pas'yati
tasyâham na pranas'yâmi
sa ca me na pranas'yati

Verse 31.

sarva-bhűta-sthitam yo mâm
bhajaty ekatvam âsthitah
sarvathâ vartamâno 'pi
sa yogî mayi vartate

     "Arjuna! The one who sees Me in all and all in Me is dear to Me, whatever be his way of life", declared Krishna. "That person who worships Me through all creatures merges in Me"! The Gîtâcârya continued and said, "There is a limit for dhyana, but not for the benefits conferred by it, the siddhi. Dhyana endows man with jńâna or supreme wisdom."

Jńâna is not mere intellectual gymnastics. It is not a flight of imagination. Neither is it a mental concoction. It is a continual experience of the reality of the âtmâ. "Only one in a million makes an attempt to realize the âtmâ. Even among them only one in a thousand understands the process of realizing the âtmâ. Among the thousands of such people only one reaches Me. Those who have achieved selfrealization and merged in Me are very few indeed", said Krishna to Arjuna. - Summer Showers in Brindavan 1979, p. 104

Verse 32.

âtmaupamyena sarvatra
samam pas'yati yo 'rjuna
sukham vâ yadi vâ duhkham
sa yogî paramo matah

Verse 33.

arjuna uvâca
yo 'yam yogas tvayâ proktah
sâmyena madhusűdana
etasyâham na pas'yâmi
cańcalatvât sthitim sthirâm

     Meanwhile, Arjuna is beset by doubt and asks for some elucidation and explanation so that he may get convinced. "Krishna! All you have been telling me is very pleasant to the ear, and I can well imagine that it must be a source of ânanda to those who attain success. But it is so difficult, beyond the reach of all. The yoga wherein everything has to be realized as equal (samathwam) is fraught with obstacles even for the fully equiped sadhaka; what then am I to say of people like me who are common aspirants? Is it possible for us?" - Gîtâ Vahini, pp. 90-1

Verse 34.

cańcalam hi manah krishna
pramâthi balavad dridham
tasyâham nigraham manye
vâyor iva sudushkaram

     Waywardness is the natural characteristic of the mind. That is the way Arjuna described it to Krishna thus: That is to say, "O, Krishna, the mind is very wayward; it moves fast; it is very powerful; it is very difficult to bring under control." - Dhyana Vahini, p. 64

     Arjuna complained to Krishna against the wildness of the mind: he said, it was chanchala (always changing its objective), pramathi (full of dangerous possibilities since it makes man a slave to the senses) and dridham (difficult to destroy). - Sathya Sai Speaks IV, p. 215

     The Mind is ever unsteady; it is "steady in its unsteadiness" as Arjuna complained to Krishna. It is fraught with disaster; it is deeprooted and difficult to suppress, says Arjuna. - Sathya Sai Speaks VIII, p. 105

     "Krishna! Is the mind so easily controllable? Alas! Even an elephant cannot drag as the mind does; it is the nursery of waywardness; its mulishness and obstinancy are very powerful; it is a terrible shrew. It can never be caught; it will never halt in one place. It is like capturing the wind or bundling up water - the attempt to catch the mind and tame it. How can anyone enter upon yoga with such a mind? One seems as hard as the other: the twin tasks of controlling the mind and practicing the yoga. Krishna, you are advising an impossible task, beyond the capacity of anyone." - Gîtâ Vahini, p. 91

Verse 35.

s'rî bhagavân uvâca
asams'ayam mahâ-bâho
mano durnigraham calam
abhyâsena tu kaunteya
vairâgyena ca grihyate

     The Lord broke into a smile on hearing these words. "Arjuna! You have described the mind and known its nature very well. But it is not an impossible task; the mind can be mastered, however difficult the task might be.

"By systematic practice (abhyâsa: steadiness, fortitude, endurance, resilience, discipline) and by relentless inquiry (vichara) and detachment (vairâgya), the mind can be mastered. There is no task that cannot be accomplished by steady practice. Place faith in the Lord and practice with the certainty that you have the power and the grace, and all tasks become easy." - Gîtâ Vahini, p. 91

     Then Krishna replied, "Arjuna, no doubt what you have said is correct. But by uninterrupted attention and discipline and by practice of renunciation, it is possible to control it. Hence, practice dhyanam (meditation), as a first step."

Impulses and desires have to be suppressed in order to get mastery over the mind. Desires excite the mind and make it rush towards the senses, as a dog runs after the master. The jîva, poor thing, falls into meshes of mâyâ produced by the illusion-creating senses and the pleasure-pursuing mind! To escape all this agony, one should have recourse to dhyanam; freed from the clutches of desires and slavery to the senses. Do japam (mantra-meditation; praying the vedic way) and dhyanam. Then you can cultivate and develop along proper lines your will; memory and imagination, too. Without dhyanam, it is not possible to control and master the mind. All other methods are as useless, as is the attempt to bind a wild elephant in rut by means of a thin and tiny thread! Dhyanam is essential to immerse the mind in the âtmâ. - Dhyana Vahini, pp. 64-5

     But, the mind can be controlled and even eliminated by means of intense dhyana on the immanent God. When that stage is reached, anger, anxiety and envy will cease bothering you; the bonds of 'I' and 'mine' will break; and you will have santhi (undisturbed peace). Your efforts must be in proportion to the grandeur of the gain you envisage, isn't it? You crave for bliss, but cling to smaller pleasures and refuse to stake as much as is needed to win it. - Sathya Sai Speaks VI, p. 215

Verse 36.

asamyatâtmanâ yogo
dushprâpa iti me matih
vas'yâtmanâ tu yatatâ
s'akyo 'vâptum upâyatah

     "Therefore, whoever enters upon this sâdhana with determination will gain the supreme goal, available only for souls transmuted through several births. Remember, the person who has achieved yoga is superior to the person who is the master of ritual karma; so strive, o Arjuna, to become a yogî, to attain that high and holy status. But this is not all you have to do. There is a status higher than even this. Whoever fixes his entire consciousness on Me, whoever earnestly meditates on Me, to the exclusion of everything else, he is superior to all, he is a mahâ-yogî. - Gîtâ Vahini, pp. 91-2
I

Verse 37.

arjuna uvâca
ayatih s'raddhayopeto
yogâc calita-mânasah
aprâpya yoga-samsiddhim
kâm gatim krishna gacchati

Verse 38.

kaccin nobhaya-vibhrashthas'
chinnâbhram iva nas'yati
apratishthho mahâ-bâho
viműdho brahmanah pathi

Verse 39.

etan me sams'ayam krishna
chettum arhasy as'eshatah
tvad-anyah sams'ayasyâsya
chettâ na hy upapadyate

Verse 40.

s'rî bhagavân uvâca
pârtha naiveha nâmutra
vinâs'as tasya vidyate
na hi kalyâna-krit kas'cid
durgatim tâta gacchati


Verse 41-42.

prâpya punya-kritâm lokân
ushitvâ s'âs'vatîh samâh
s'ucînâm s'rîmatâm gehe
yoga-bhrashtho 'bhijâyate

athavâ yogînâm eva
kule bhavati dhîmatâm
etaddhi durlabhataram
loke janma yad îdris'am

Verse 43.

tatra tam buddhi-samyogam
labhate paurva-dehikam
yatate ca tato bhűyah
samsiddhau kuru-nandana

Verse 44.

pűrvâbhyâsena tenaiva
hriyate hy avas'o 'pi sah
jijńâsur api yogasya
s'abda-brahmâtivartate

     Dhyana is the process of listening to the Song Celestial, the flute of Krishna, with the mental ears alert on the melody. Yoga is the merging of the mind in the bliss of self-forgetfulness, when the music fills the consciousness. Words like this do not completely denote that inexpressible ecstasy that one gets while "back home", after this long exile. - Sathya Sai Speaks VII, p. 291

Verse 45.

prayatnâd yatamânas tu
yogî sams'uddha-kilbishah
aneka-janma-samsiddhas
tato yâti parâm gatim

Verse 46.

tapasvibhyo 'dhiko yogî
jńânibhyo 'pi mato 'dhikah
karmibhyas' câdhiko yogî
tasmâd yogî bhavârjuna

Verse 47.

yogînâm api sarveshâm
mad-gatenântarâtmanâ
s'raddhâvân bhajate yo mâm
sa me yuktatamo matah

     The science of rnind-control called yoga has been developed here (India), since ancient times, and thousands in every age have practiced it with success, until they achieved its fruit, self-realization. One result of this self-realization has been the recognition of every one else as but the reflection of oneself - the true basis of unity of mankind. - Sathya Sai Speaks V, p. 110

 

 

Yama: austerities, first part of ashthânga-yoga, also called the great vow; the don'ts, what one abstains from. Other parts are: ahimsa: nonviolence, satya: truthfulness, asteya: non-stealing, brahmacârya, celibacy and aparigraha: non-appropriation. Nonviolent one becomes effective and without desire is one of the commitment that gives the right understanding for the meaning of life. According to Krishna: 'Nonviolence, truthfulness, not coveting or stealing the property of others, detachment, humility, non-possessiveness, belief in God, celibacy as also silence, steadiness, forgiveness and fearlessness' (see SB 11.19: 33.35).

 

    

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