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Chapter 7 - Vis'vâmitra

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Discourses of

S'rî Sathya Sai Baba


S'rîmad Bhâgavatam



Summer Course in
Indian Culture & Spirituality
Brindavan, Bangalore - May 2-31, 1995




Chapter 7 - Vis'vâmitra [Kausika]
S.B. Canto 9, Chapter 7


  Naasti Lobha Samo Vyaadhih
Naasti Krodha Samo Ripuh.
Naasti Daaridryavat Dukham
Naasti Jnaana Samo Sukham.

There is no disease like greed,
No enemy like anger,
No sorrow greater than poverty,
No happiness equal to wisdom.

Everyone strives to acquire happiness and to remove misery, but is unsuccessful. Creation is vast and endless. Man is just a tiny part of the Cosmos and therefore, should lead his life in keeping with the welfare of all. Instead, man believes that Creation is meant for his own enjoyment, and exploits it. Just as a child draws milk from its mother and a bee draws nectar from a flower, man can also draw necessary resources from Nature.


- The Importance of Limits

These days we see nature revolting by way of disasters because man ignores all limits in exploiting its resources. Torrential rain, drought, earthquakes, floods - such are the repercussions of man's greed. On account of scientific progress, scientists have grown selfish without regard for the world's welfare. They provoke nature to retaliation.

The Bhâgavatam says:
Durlabho Maanusha Janmah: A human birth is difficult to acquire.

Viveka Choodamani says:
Jantoonaam Nara Janma Durlabham: A human birth is rarest among all beings. The Purânas teach that among the 8.400.000 species of beings in the world, humans are the most evolved. When we ponder over these scriptural statements, we realize how pure, valuable and sacred human life is. Today we have forgotten that a human birth is priceless, potentially Divine and full of Bliss. Thus we invite sorrow upon ourselves.

For happiness and sorrow, your behavior alone is responsible, not anyone else. People are unable to believe this fact. With pure conduct, you can acquire all the happiness and comfort you desire. Your desires also must be within limits if you want peace of mind. Men are going mad since they do not limit unreasonable desires.


- The Story of Tris'anku ['afraid of the heavens']

In the Candravams'a there was an emperor called Tris'anku. He was a great King in every way. He was truthful, an embodiment of dharma, and he treated his subjects as if they were his own children. His heart was full of compassion. In spite of his excellent qualities, Tris'anku could not limit one peculiar desire that found a way into his heart: He yearned to dwell in heaven in his physical body. To this end, Tris'anku went to his family guru, sage Vasishthha. He said: "Respected Guru, please help me achieve this desire and bring fulfillment into my life". Vasishthha remarked, "Shame on you! Your desire is unnatural. This body is dirty. It is the home of mucus, waste matter, and disease. To take this ephemeral body to the heavenly realms is like dragging a corpse along with you. People earn heaven after good actions and yajñas done over many lifetimes. It is impossible to take the physical body there. It is against God's rules for creation to even attempt it. This thought is not worthy of you. I cannot help you. If you are adamant, you may approach another sage."

Tris'anku went home dejected. After some time he journeyed northward. He went to meet the bright, austere, powerful and highly esteemed sons of Vasishthha. The sons of Vasishthha had surpassed even their father! No one was greater than them in wisdom, fame, and austerity. Tris'anku told them his problem as well as Vasishthha 's words. They said, Tris'anku! Our father is your personal guru and the guru of your dynasty. By coming to us, you have disobeyed him, insulted him. Why would we overrule our father? Do you want us to go against our father like you did? There is no place among us for a disciple who doesn't value his guru's words. Go away!"

Tris'anku had nowhere to go. So he went to Kausika. This Kausika was also a King originally. But his kingly pride took a fall when he opposed Vasishthha 's spiritual power. So, at that time, he was engaged in arduous penance for spiritual powers. Kausika decided to satisfy Tris'anku at any cost, only because Vasishthha had refused to do so. Why? Kausika hated and envied Vasishthha intensely. Vasishthha was a Brahmarishi while he was only a Rajarishi. [the picture at the left side of this text depicts sage Kausika or Vis'vâmitra ]

Kausika had exerted tremendously to achieve the status of a Brahmarishi, but had failed till then. What was the reason? His hatred, anger, and jealousy prevented him from advancing beyond the stage of Rajarishi. One who harbors anger and jealousy can never prosper. He can never achieve his goals. There is no enemy greater than anger. There is no disease greater than envy. There is a medicine for every disease but none for jealousy. And Tris'anku sought help from Kausika, in whom so many bad qualities were present.

Kausika assured him, "I will send you to heaven in your physical body without fail!" He began planning a yajña and summoned many ritviks. None of them approved of this yajña, but they still came, fearing Kausika's wrath. Kausika was anger personified. The ritviks did not want to be burnt in the fire of his anger. They told themselves, "Let us just go there quietly and do our job."

The yajña to send Tris'anku to heaven began. No Devas were seen approaching to accept the offerings of the yajña. Kausika understood that the Devas disapproved of Tris'anku's motive. He decided to send Tris'anku to heaven solely by the power of his penance. He poured all his spiritual powers into a wooden staff. Then, holding the staff aloft, he announced,"Tris'anku! I command you to ascend to heaven." Tris'anku began rising in the air and soon, he went out of sight. Everyone was speechless at this incredible event. After some time, they heard shouts, "Guruji! Guruji!" When they looked up, they saw Tris'anku falling down shouting, "Guruji! Indra (King of the Heavend) did not permit me to enter heaven. What should I do? I await your command."

Kausika was incensed at the audacity of the Devas who had refused admission to his supplicant. He said, "You stay there, don't come down." With Tris'anku as the central point, Kausika began creating a second universe by the strength of his spiritual power! He created a new sun, moon, planets, stars, heaven, and so on. But the Devas looked upon these creations as artificial and ignored them.


 - The Story of S'unahs'epha

While Tris'anku was in that state, his son Haris'candra ruled the kingdom. This was not Satya Haris'candra, who is famous for his truthfulness! His name was Haris'candra, that's all! This Haris'candra prayed to Lord Varuna (the demigod ruling the waters) for a son. He promised that he would surrender the son to Varuna soon after he was born. Varuna heard his prayer and a son was born in a few months. The son was named Rohita ['to the blood']. Haris'candra could not bring himself to give Rohita away to Varuna. He reneged on his promise. Rohita came to know of his father's mistake. He thought, "I wonder what calamities might beset me in this kingdom," and ran away to the forest. He spent many years wandering aimlessly, subsisting on roots and tubers. Meanwhile, as a consequence of breaking his promise, Haris'candra was afflicted with a chronic disease.

What is the inner meaning of these stories? The father, Tris'anku, nursed a desire that went against the laws of nature. The son, Haris'candra, did not keep his word. These stories are told to illustrate the sorrow that ensues from these two actions - breaking one's word and going against the divine law. Everyone, without distinction, must necessarily follow the rules and disciplines of nature. No one has the authority to oppose these rules, which represent the divine law. To break such laws is to invite great calamity. This is an important teaching of the Bhâgavatam.

Rohita came to know of his father's disease. He attempted to return home many times. But Indra appeared to him and dissuaded him every time. Rohita considered himself responsible for his father's condition. He continuously searched for a solution to this dilemma. He thought about his father's promise to Varuna - One living being had to be offered to Varuna in a yajña.

The father can have love for his sons, no doubt. But it should be within limits. It should be neither excessive like Dhritarashtra's love, nor deficient like Hiranyakas'ipu's love. Years roll by and old age arrives, but man's attachment only grows and grows! This is the reason why today's man experiences hell. Why? Attachment and possessiveness alone are responsible for misery. Attachment must have limits. Without limits, man forgets his divine nature, behaves like an animal and loses respect in society.

Rohita resolved to return and put an end to his father's suffering. On the way, he met a couple and their three sons. Rohita told them, "I will give you untold wealth and cows and land in exchange for one of your sons. I need a boy for a yajña. Will you give me your oldest son?" The man said, "I love my oldest son immensely. I cannot live without him." Rohita persisted, "How about your youngest son, then?" The wife interjected, "He is the darling of my heart. I cannot part with him." The middle son was not as much loved as the other two. The father said, "You can have our second son." The second son told himself, "How unfortunate I am! I couldn't become worthy of my parents' affection. It is much better to offer my life in a yajña than to live such a life." He went with Rohita of his own volition. This boy was S'unahs'epha. They walked for a long distance and felt tired. They felt hungry but could see no human habitation nearby. They noticed a hermitage at a distance and ran into it. The hermitage was the abode of the noble Sage Vis'vâmitra.

S'unahs'epha spoke his heart to Vis'vâmitra. "O Great Sage! This is my pitiable situation. Please protect me somehow and make me your disciple," he pleaded. Vis'vâmitra assured him, "Don't worry, I will definitely save you." Immediately he sent for his three sons and instructed, "One of you must agree to go to the yajña instead of this boy. Haris'candra is performing a yajña in which one being must be offered to Varuna."

Paropakaaraartham Idam Sareeram -
Our bodies are meant to
be of service to others. We must be ever ready to give our life to protect another's.

Vis'vâmitra's sons burst out laughing. "Father, you are ready to sacrifice your own sons for the sake of some unknown boy? Is this what you are supposed to teach us?" None of them agreed to renounce his life. Then Vis'vâmitra called S'unahs'epha near and said, "Son, two mantras are required for this yajña to be completed. I will teach them to you now. Recite them in the yajña."

S'unahs'epha learnt the two mantras by heart and proceeded with Rohita. Haris'candra's yajña began. Haris'candra felt guilty that he was ready to sacrifice someone else's son to Varuna. He recognized his acute selfishness. Rohita also suffered terribly with feelings of guilt. But he could not go against his father's order for S'unahs'epha to be sacrificed.

As the yajña neared conclusion, S'unahs'epha recited his mantras loudly. In that peaceful atmosphere, those mantras illumined the surroundings. Varuna noticed the brilliance of the mantras and descended to the site Himself. Varuna said, "Haris'candra! You promised me something and did something else. Your disease is nothing but the fruit of this sinful act. The given word must be upheld. No one is exempt from this injunction. Even at the cost of one's life, do not go back on your promise.
Satyam Naasti Paro Dharmah - There is no dharma
higher than truth. This whole universe has emerged from satya, and it merges into satya ultimately. There is no place in the world without Truth. Instead of protecting and experiencing Truth, you opposed it and invited misery. However, your son Rohita prayed that S'unahs'epha should be saved at any cost. Yielding to Rohita's s'raddhâ and pure feelings, I have come Myself." Paying money to buy someone else's son and sacrifice him? This is a great sin. The parents also offered the son by yielding to greed.

We must realize the inner meaning here. Who was the root cause of all this suffering? It was Tris'anku. He went against the natural law. He wanted a second creation to be made just for himself! This is against the will of God. These traits also appeared in his son to a certain extent. One who opposes God's will cannot survive in this world. To disobey the will of God is bhagavat-droham and guru-droham, treachery towards God and guru. Tris'anku suffered because he was a traitor to God and to his guru. One should be ever obedient to one's father also. Devotion and obedience to God, father, and guru: these are the hallmarks of Indian Culture. Tris'anku was one who disregarded the sanctity of these three relations.


 - The Story of Kausika

Tris'anku was only a king. But look at the Sage Kausika! He had immense wisdom and tremendous penance to his credit. Yet, he stooped to the level of helping Tris'anku in his questionable desire. Kausika would not have helped Tris'anku under normal circumstances, but his hatred for Vasishthha made him take that step. Hatred clouds discrimination. What is the use of arduous penance, yajñas and many kinds of education? Kausika was a master of all scriptures, possessed boundless spiritual power and was an embodiment of dharma. But he allowed hatred into his heart and laid all these virtues to waste. He performed a task that even ordinary people would have recognized as wrong!

For this reason Kausika's respect gradually diminished. Only his penance and powers sustained his waning reputation. Kausika's penance had jealousy as its foundation. He was jealous that Vasishthha had earned the title of Brahmarishi. Despite his penance, Kausika could not curb his anger. Even after Brahmâ appeared to him and honored him with the title of Rajarishi, his anger did not subside. Brahmâ knew that Kausika was full of rajo-guna (the mode of passion) and hence, gave him the title of Rajarishi. One with rajas is a Rajarishi. The one who recognizes the nature of Brahman and acts according to the prompting of the âtmâ is a Brahmarishi.

Kausika was originally a king. Many, many years ago, he went to the forest for a hunt (see S.B. 9.15: 23). He was exhausted after a full day of hunting. He came across a hermitage - Sage Vasishthha's hermitage. He paid his respects to Vasishthha. Enthralled by the serenity and natural beauty of the hermitage, Kausika tarried there, conversing with Vasishthha. After some time, he requested Vasishthha's permission to return to his city. Vasishthha said, "You are the emperor of this land. Under your rule, we ascetics are able to live peacefully in the forest. Through your administrative policies, you are ever attentive to the protection and care of sages. It is our duty to honor our King as a special guest. You must accept my hospitality."

Kausika said humbly, "Swami! I am not here alone. Thousands of soldiers are with me. If you give me a glass of water or milk, that is sufficient. Please don't trouble yourself." Vasishthha said, "O King! There is no dearth of anything in this hermitage. Where God's grace showers, all-round abundance follows. I am capable of providing hospitality to any number of your soldiers." Kausika was surprised. He wondered, "How is this sage planning to provide my entire army with food?" Kausika's arrogance rose and he thought, "Let me test this sage." He agreed to Vasishthha's request.

Vasishthha called out lovingly, "Sabali, Sabali!" A cow came there. Vasishthha told the cow, "Look here, Sabali. The king is our guest today. Please arrange for his comfort and that of his soldiers." In the twinkling of an eye, everything appeared! Sabali was a kâmadhenu, a wish-fulfilling cow gifted by Lord Brahmâ. There was food even for Kausika's elephants and horses, what to talk of his soldiers and himself! Kausika was an emperor. But even his royal kitchens had never produced such delicious food. Arrogance and greed entered Kausika's heart. He thought, "This miraculous cow must reside with a King, not with a recluse in a forest."

Kausika finished eating. Then he told Vasishthha, "O Sage! I have a small request. Please give me Sabali." Vasishthha said, "That is impossible. Sabali is meant to be with me." Kausika tried to convince him in many ways but Vasishthha wouldn't yield. Kausika lost his patience, turned to his soldiers and said, "Drag this cow to our city." The soldiers began dragging Sabali away and she cried out to Vasishthha, "Guruji! What fault have I done? Why do you let them drag me away?"

Vasishthha told her, "Here is a king who is proud of his physical and intellectual strength, but he has no strength of virtue. How can I reason with a king devoid of virtue?" He tried advising Kausika, but to no avail. Now, Kausika's army consisted of hundreds of thousands of soldiers. Who could defy such a force? Knowing Sabali's strength, Vasishthha told her, "I permit you to deal with them as you wish."

All of a sudden, Sabali created a divine army of millions out of nowhere, which fell upon Kausika's army. Kausika's men were annihilated in a matter of minutes. Not a single soldier survived. Even the sons of Kausika were not spared! The only one left alive was Kausika himself, who returned home humiliated. Since then, his hatred for Vasishthha grew into a raging fire.

Kausika's anger and hatred were a curse to him. Vasishthha was ever peaceful, even during this incident. Vasishthha cautioned him, "The angry man cannot succeed. He commits sins and loses his respect. He distances himself from his near and dear ones and is despised by all. This dire enemy, anger, destroys every happiness of man. Your enemy is within you, not outside." But Vasishthha's peaceful demeanor and advice would cause Kausika's anger to increase even more!


- The True Meaning of Sacrifice

What is the reason for anger and loss of discrimination? It is only attachment! Why should a prosperous emperor desire this cow? He has all comforts in his kingdom. This cow belonged to the sage and was a divine blessing for feeding the denizens of the forest. Why not let the cow dwell where its services were most needed? Craving for objects that he shouldn't desire is the reason for man's ruin. The Bhâgavatam is replete with ideals:
(1) Keep your word. (2) Never lie. (3) Limit desires and attachment.

Yes, you may have attachment for your wife and children. But keep it within limits. Not only must you limit your attachment but limit its duration also. Your householder life is only till fifty years of age. By sixty years, you must enter Vânaprastha (the withdrawn position, normally the third phase of life between 40 and 60). You should snap ties with wife and children and be free of all responsibilities. The age of seventy years is the time for complete renunciation (sannyâsa).

Instead of cultivating such sacrifice, men today refuse to renounce attachments till death. Only hell can result to such people. Help your family and others to the extent possible. Discharge your duties towards everyone. And remember that every person is independent, governed by his individual karma. Everyone is responsible for themself. Don't cultivate attachment, which is the root cause of sorrow.

In this modem age, 99 out of 100 people spend their lives in attachment. Even those with perfect renunciation in ancient Bharath could not escape sorrow! Then how can modern man, submerged in attachment, expect to live happily? Remember, each one is responsible for oneself. Develop such feelings of sacrifice. For this reason the Vedas advise:

Na Karmana Na Prajaya Dhanena Tyaagenaike Amritatvamaanashu.
Not by good deeds, children or wealth but only by sacrifice is immortality attained.

What is the meaning of "sacrifice"? Attachment (raga) and hatred (dvesha) must be sacrificed. People talk about the nava grahas who must be appeased so that our lives are free of misfortunes. Really, there are not nine, but only two grahas that we must be mindful of: attachment and hatred! These two put us through suffering. Renounce attachment and hatred. This alone is true sacrifice, true renunciation: Cultivate thoughts of God and think of everyone's welfare.

Lokaah Samastaah Sukhino Bhavantu
May all the worlds be happy.

You must pray in this manner every day. Do not limit yourself to your family, friends, and relatives. Everyone must be happy. With such prayer, victory and peace will fill you!

So, gradually strengthen your spirit of sacrifice. What is sacrifice? You must sacrifice attachment and hatred. These feelings lie at the root of all possessiveness. If you only give up money, clothes, property and possessions, that is not sacrifice.


- Decrease Attachment to the Body

Students! Develop this correct outlook from a tender age. Get rid of bodily attachment gradually, to the extent possible. Use the body merely as a tool to perform your duties. The body has been given for performing actions but it is not everlasting. Do not develop attachment or pride on its account. The body is like a glass tumbler. It might break at any moment.

Body is a water bubble.
Mind is a mad monkey.
Don't follow the body.
Don't follow the mind.
Follow the conscience.

Don't cultivate attachment to the body beyond limits. That is why our ancient sages went into solitude to overcome bodily attachment. They took care of their bodies but at the same time, decreased their physical attachment. Those who aspire for divinity must necessarily embark on this path. However, if you don't want God, you can remain preoccupied with the body for as long as you wish, because that will give you the temporary happiness you seek.

One small example: Once, for a mistake, Nârada was cursed by Lord Nârâyana and took birth as a pig. He wallowed in mud all day and it seemed to be Vaikunthha to him! Then he married a she-pig and became a father to nine piglets. This pig-Nârada was so happy wading through filth along with his wife and children. For him, that filth was Vaikunthha, his pigwife was Kailasa and his children were heaven! From time to time, Devas would pass by and remonstrate with him, "What is this pitiable state, Nârada? Shed this attachment to a pig's body. We are on our way to meet Lord Nârâyana. Realize your true identity and come with us."

Then the pig-Nârada would reply, "No, no, no! I don't want your tasteless world. See how happy I am here! My wife is so beautiful! I have nine children, as glorious as the nine planets. And the enjoyment of wading in this mud is not available to me even in heaven! How can I simply leave these joys and come away?"

What is the lesson here? Who was overcome by attachment? None other than Nârada, a mentally created son of Brahmâ! So, you may definitely have attachment and desires. But limit them. With limited desires, attain the limitless Divinity - This is the easy path. If you fail to put a ceiling on desires, you distance yourself from God.

Students, plan your life along idealistic lines from a young age and demonstrate it to society. You definitely have the freedom and the right to desire the necessities of life. But don't cultivate too many desires. Cut your ego and limit attachment, thereby letting divine feelings flourish. This is what Vedanta and the Bhâgavatam advise.


- The Bhâgavatam is "His Story"

There are many stories, some strange, in the Bhâgavatam. You might find them long or cumbersome. No, no. They are all "histories". "History" means "His Story" - stories of God. Unfortunately we are unable to appreciate the Bhâgavatam. Hence, we violate its teachings. Truly, every verse of this scripture is a pearl, a diamond. Bhâgavatam was written for the very purpose of teaching the secrets of attaining God. Otherwise, why would Vyâsa sit dispiritedly on the banks of river Sarasvatî after composing the eighteen Purânas, and why would Nârada go there and advise him to compose Bhâgavatam?

Nârada told Vyâsa, "You wrote the Purânas and the Mahâbhâratha and earned the name sloka dâta - giver of divine verses. But your slokas (divine verses) could not dispel your soka (sorrow). You inquired into the intentions of the wicked Kauravas and described their characters in the Mahâbhâratha. Thus your mind was sullied. To cleanse yourself, now describe the stories of the Lord. Write the Bhâgavatam." There is no text greater than the Bhägavatam. Why? The Bhâgavatam alone explains the nature of God in entirety.


- Give up Kama to Attain Râma

There was a being who was able to assume different forms. Assuming the form of a monkey, he went around telling people, "You fools! Look at me. I am a monkey. I dwell inside you as your mind. I am responsible for your fickleness. Even monkeys served Râma despite their unsteadiness. But you men follow kama (desire) instead of Râma". (see also RRV-4)

Do you see? Even monkeys were intelligent to serve Râma. But men run after kama. They are more foolish than monkeys! Desires, desires, desires... How can Râma grant His vision to one drowned in desires? Decrease your desires gradually. Like the horns of a bull, which grow with age, your desires are ever-increasing! This is not proper. Human values will degenerate into animal qualities if this trend persists.

Students! As much as possible, decrease your desires. Desires are the prime cause of sorrow. The less our desires, the more our bliss. While performing worldly duties, do virtuous actions and think of spiritual matters. Our country is full of miserable situations. Students should arm themselves with skills and capacity and rectify these situations.


Bhagavân concluded with the bhajan:
"Bhava Bhaya Harana, Vandita Charana" )


(Candra)vams'a: Dynasty; Lord Râma appeared in the Sûrya-vams'a of Ikshvâku or the sun-dynasty and Lord Krishna appeared in the Candra-vams'a or the moon-dynasty.
Kausika: and Vis'vâmitra are the same person. Originally angry and proud as Kausika, he undertook arduous penance and conquered his ego. Then he came to be known as Sage Vis'vâmitra. In this discourse, the name Kausika is used when he was a King or an "unripe" sage. The name Vis'vâmitra is used after he became a perfected sage or brahmarishi.
Brahmarishi: Sage established in Brahman (Self) - Highest class of sages.
Rajarishi: King among sages - A title granted to eminent sages.
Viveka Choodamani: Adi Shankaracharya's importance to not only Advaita thought, but Hinduism as it was subsequently practiced and understood, even by those who would not consider themselves Advaitist, cannot be stressed enough. His main works are the Brahma Bhashyas, which are commentaries on the Brahma Sutras, a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita in nondualist strains, and his own treatise on Advaita, the Viveka Choodamani/Viveka Chudamani. In addition, he is well known for propounding a system of bhakti, or selfless devotion, within an Advaitic system of philosophy, in a number of bhajans, or devotional songs, the most famous being
Bhaja Govindam, Soundaryalahari and Sivanandalahari
Ritvik: the state of being a ritvij or priest; there are four of them:
- the hotâ priest (the one offering oblations and singing theRig Veda verses),
- the brahma priest (supervising the proceedings),
- the adhvaryu priest (who chant the Yayur-mantras and prepares the sacrifice by arranging the sacrificial ground, the altar, etc.)
- and the udgâtâ priest (singing the Sâma-veda hymns).
- The three forms of sacrifice are constituted by the three Vedas which provide for the verses used by the offerings of the hotâ, the advaryu and the udgâtâ priest.
Deva: demigod; great personality in devotion unto Krishna, selfrealized to independent management.
- Living being, empowered by the Lord with the might to rule over a certain section of the universe, like the sun, the rain, fire etc., and also to watch over the well-being of all living beings.
- Pious being, servant of God. Godly person, demigod. Godconscious person.
- In three kinds: Adityas or sons of Aditi (see S.B. 8.16 & 17), the Vasus and the Rudras. The virtuous, the good and the purifiers.
- The Brihadaranyak Upanishad says that there are mainly thirty-three gods who are important in the celestial world in terms of the performance of Vedic rituals and the yajñas. Other celestial gods are affiliates to them. They are: eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, twelve Adityas (forms of sun god), Indra and Prajâpati (hindu encycl.).
S'raddhâ: belief; finding sympathy to engage in the sphere of devotional service; trust.
Nava(nine)-grahas(celestial powers): in Hindu astrology - Aditya, Soma, Mangala, Budha, Guru, Sukra, Sani, Rahu and Ketu.
Vaikunthha: Abode of Lord Vishnu.
Kailasa: Abode of Lord S'iva.
Vedânta: (knowledge-end): the conclusions of vedic knowledge as laid down in the Bhagavad Gîtâ, VVedânta-sûtra and the Upanishads and next in the S'riimad Bhâgavatam, who teach the highest realization of the Absolute Truth: surrender to Krishna; the essence of the vedic philosophy.
S'rîmad Bâgavatam (Bhagavata Purâna): The most beautiful about Him, the Fortunate one. The Krishna-'Bible', spoken by S'ukadeva Gosvâmî, the son of Vyâsadeva who wrote down the story of Krishna. In this book, a collection of classical stories, of about 18000 verses is each and everything described of bhakti-yoga as also the entire life of Lord krishna and other avatâras of Vishnu; it is a compendium of vedic wisdom that contains the creme of the vedic scriptures (
go to the S'rîmad Bhâgavatam on the internet).
- The most important of the eighteen main Purânas also called the paramahamsa samhita.
- One of the six Vishnu-purânas








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