evâham jâtu nâsam
na tvam neme janâdhipâh
na caiva na bhavishyâmah
sarve vayam atah param
I never really did not
exist whenever, nor did you;
you nor any of all these kings -
never shall also surely all of us not exist
universe is full of many powers. An omniscient,
omnipotent and omnipresent power pervades all of
creation. This divine force is immanent in every atom,
like sugar in syrup. The Upanishads call this - raso
vai sah - or all-pervading sweetness. God is an
embodiment of sweetness. Although this sweetness is
everywhere, it is not possible to recognize its
omnipresence. However, it is possible for all to observe
the existence of divinity.
The Existence of Divinity
Sweetness in sugarcane,
bitterness in neem
leaves, burning in chili, acerbity in lemon and fire in
wood - all these are direct proofs of God's existence. A
plant germinates from a seed. A bird emerges from an egg.
The newborn infant becomes a mother one day. These are
all living proofs of the existence of divinity. Man
experiences exhilaration upon seeing majestic peaks,
gurgling rivers, the deep ocean, lush forests and
colorful gardens. What is the basis of these phenomena?
It is God's existence alone.
It is not given to
everyone to grasp the omnipresence of God, but all have
the capacity to identify His presence.
Jñânam Uttamam - Of all kinds of
knowledge, Âtmâ Jñâna is the
foremost and the best. We find various forms of
knowledge in the world - music, literature, painting,
sculpture, dance, materials and so on.
Âtmâ Jñâna is paramount.
Worldly knowledge might endow you with scholarship, fame,
honor and titles. But, Atmânâm Atmam
Uttamam - The title higher than all worldly titles is
that you are the Âtmâ. The Vedas say
that man is Amritaputra - a child of immortality.
This is the highest title.
Qualities of Earning Wisdom
All worldly knowledge
changes with time and deludes your intellect. For this
reason, our ancient sages dedicated their lives to the
acquisition of Âtmâ
Jñâna, which is changeless and illumines
the intellect. Some qualities are necessary for earning
1. Sarve loka hito
welfare of all beings by engaging in actions that
benefit others. We should cultivate readiness to
serve. Your education should equip you better to
render service. Then you will evoke true respect from
excel in all forms of knowledge. This is also called
"awareness." You should understand and experience all
the angles of a situation. Worldly subjects grant you
competence within a narrow scope. You perceive
situations with a limited outlook. If I ask you what
this [handkerchief] is, you say, "a piece of
cloth". This answer shows your restricted, worldly
knowledge. With broader vision, you identify it as a
handkerchief. Spiritual knowledge is complete and
enables one to grasp all fields of knowledge. This is
3. Sarve samuditha
The student must
embody every virtue or guna. What is meant by guna?
Traditionally, the three qualities of creation
(sathwa, rajas, and tamas) are called gunas. Indeed,
virtue is the union and balance of these three gunas.
In practice, it is very important to disregard the
faults of others and to express your own Divinity.
This is true guna. This trait is crucial for students
and it is the source of all virtues. That which
inculcates such virtue alone can be called education.
Modern educational systems impart information but not
education teaches only information,
but not even an iota of virtue.
What beneficial fruit can emerge from
a million forms of education, devoid of values?
Without human values you
cannot deliver the fruits of your learning society.
Therefore, human values must be cultivated. Of these,
satya is the most important. Truth is God. Some
people went to Buddha and argued about the existence of
God. Buddha told them:
disputes are a waste of time. Satya,
and ahimsâ are the same as God.
Therefore, worship God as the form of truth first.
Speak the truth. Practice dharma. Observe
Now, what is meant by
nonviolence? People consider only hurting and
harming others as violence. No, no. Harming yourself is
also violence. Talking unnecessarily, eating
immoderately, and working too much - these are
violence. Meaning, one should lead a life of
moderation and balance. Anything done beyond limits is
violence. Even writing excessively is violence.
Why is it bad to transgress limits? Because it wastes
energy. By talking more than necessary, we deplete our
intellect. Therefore, nonviolence can be defined
as the regulation of human life along moderate and
beneficial paths. The Vedas say: Satyam vada, dharmam
chara - Speak the truth and follow dharma. Truth is God.
Right action is God. That is why the Vedas advise us to
adhere to satya and dharma. This is true
Individual soul and All-pervading Soul
Nowadays, people make
many attempts to reach divinity. But they go around in
circles because some spiritual concepts have been left
inadequately explained for a long time. These are:
jîva and deva (individual soul and
God), âtmâ and
paramâtmâ (limited soul and
all-pervading soul), anu and brahmânu
(atom and universe), sthûlam and
sûkshmam (gross and subtle). No one is able
to interpret these concepts correctly today.
Vedanta discovered such
profound concepts which science has never been able to
fathom. On the other hand, science has gathered facts
that Vedanta considered unessential. But in spite of
investigations by both scientists and Vedantins, these
basic truths are not understood properly by the common
man. How should we describe divinity? What is the
distinction between âtmâ and
paramâtmâ, between anu and
If we reflect, the
atom and the universe are one and the same! This
tumbler has water from the river Godavari. Suppose we
bring Godavari water in a huge pot. And then again, in a
big tanker. All of them are the same water. They differ
only in quantity. Quality is one.
In the same way, when we
study the atom we come across microcosmic phenomena. In
the flame of a lamp, we find heat and light. Upon closer
examination, a flame has the same innate qualities as an
atom. The water in this tumbler has the same taste, color
and form as that in the river Godavari. This is That,
That is This. When we grasp this one principle, we
God is described in our
scriptures as Anoranêyân Mahato
Mahêyân - smaller than the smallest,
bigger than the biggest. The universe is really a
reflection of the same forces present in an atom. Without
the combination of atoms, the universe cannot exist. The
principle that is present in all is divinity
This is what
taught his son. "Son, God is everywhere. Observe the
relation between an atom and the cosmos and you will
understand âtmâ and
paramâtmâ. Go into the house and bring
some sugar and some water." His son obeyed. Uddalaka
said: "Observe the sugar carefully." The boy looked at it
and felt it. Then he mixed it in water. Then Uddalaka
asked him to find the sugar. But the sugar could not be
collected with the hand because it had dissolved. Still,
its presence could be proved by tasting a drop of the
sweet water. Where was the sugar? It cannot be said to be
"here" or "there". It was everywhere in the
In the same way, the
sugar that can be seen and touched is
âtmâ. It is limited. The sugar that is
dissolved, which is beyond touch and sight, beyond name
and form, beyond spatial limitations, is
paramâtmâ. The âtmâ
present in your body also pervades the universe as
Paramâtmâ is called consciousness. The
âtmâ in the body is called conscience.
That consciousness is present in your conscience and your
conscience is a part of the Consciousness.
A seed contains roots,
branches, leaves, fruits, flower - everything.
viddhi pârtha sanâtanam
buddhir buddhimatâm asmi
tejas tejasvinâm aham
Know, o son of
Prithâ, that I am the seed of all living beings
, the original intelligence of the intelligent I am; I
am the prowess of the powerful.
This seed is present in
the mighty tree and the entire tree is present within the
seed. Anoranêyân - smaller than the
smallest - that is the seed.
Mahatomahêyân - bigger than the
biggest - this is the tree. There is no difference
between the seed and the tree. The difference is only in
vision. Meaning, the extroverted vision sees multiple
forms but the inner eye perceives unity in
Therefore, it is not
possible for anyone to recognize this all-pervasive
divinity. But that is not required! If you recognize the
divine spark present in yourself, you become the knower
of the omnipresent divinity also! That is why Vedanta
urges man, "Know Thyself."
If you ask a person, "Who
are you?" he answers, "I am the son of...". Or he may say
he is a doctor or a lawyer. Or he may say, "American,"
"Indian," "Italian." None of these is correct. When you
base your identity on your father, you speak out of
body-consciousness. Doctor or lawyer is your profession.
The third response is your country of birth. These
answers are like artificial dialogue heard in a cinema.
Your true nature is âtmâ. No one can
change the conscience in each person. You may change
countries and behavior, but not the
principle present in everyone is the
âtmâ. Modern people do not perform
such subtle investigations and so, do not believe these
truths. They dedicate their time, body and actions to
this temporary, physical existence. Hence, they give only
worldly responses. jñânânâm
jnânam uttamam - Âtmâ
Jñâna is the best kind of knowledge.
Once you have Âtmâ Jñâna,
you may blend other sciences in it. Âtmâ
Jñâna is the ocean, worldly sciences are
rivers. Nadînâm Sâgaro Gatih -
all rivers merge into the ocean.
A small example. Rice is
your staple food. But you do not eat rice by itself. You
mix vegetables and curries in it. With such side dishes
you can enjoy a tasty meal. Take the rice of
âtmâ vidya and mix into it the dishes
of worldly knowledge. This will lend taste to your
physical life. In any situation, âtmâ
vidya must never be renounced.
Brahmâ, Vishnu and Maheshvara (S'iva)
The principles that teach
and nourish âtmâ vidya, sustain its
awareness and protect it are known as Brahmâ,
Vishnu, and Maheshvara. These are only names.
Today, there is no one who has seen these Beings. Yes, we
see them in cinemas and books, but no one has seen them
directly. As per jñâna philosophy,
this is delusion also!
Truly, who is this
and where is He? Brahmâ is the Creator. The subtle
secrets of the Creator are present in every mother and
father. The parents who bestow this physical body on you
have all the qualities of Brahmâ. Make every effort
to understand the sacred principles in your parents. Your
mother is the basis of your birth. She sustained you and
brought you into this world. The one who created you is
none other than your mother. The mother fosters her child
in hundreds of ways, like Brahmâ. Therefore, when
you respect your mother and worship her, you worship
Brahmâ. That is why our ancients said,
Mâtru Devo Bhava - The mother is equal to
is not enough. The means to live must be provided to the
child. When the child ventures into the world, it must be
taught right behavior. The ways for earning respect in
society must be inculcated. Education and a home must be
furnished. All these are responsibilities of the father.
sustains and protects the souls created by Brahmâ.
That same Vishnu is the father. When you worship and
honor your father, you truly worship Vishnu.
He is described as bhola (innocent) by devotees.
He is known for granting every desire, without
hesitation, even if the boons might result in trouble to
Him! He is sulabha priya - easily pleased. You
know the story of the demon Bhaumâsura (or
Vrikâsura, see S.B.
(Maheshvara or Rudra)
gave him the boon of burning anything with his palm. Then
He Himself ran to escape the demon's palm! What does this
mean? S'ankara grants desires without prejudice or
hesitation. A guru teaches all without preference. To one
who wants proficiency in mathematics, the teacher teaches
math. If another desires physics, that is taught. The
guru teaches whatever one wishes to learn, to anyone who
comes with the desire. When the student's desires are not
elevating, he advises him accordingly. No student turns
back from a guru empty-handed. Thus, the guru is equal to
Maheshvara. When you respect your guru, you really
Pillars of Indian Culture
consider mother, father, and teacher as being equal to
God. The Vedas propagate these glorious values by
Devo Bhava - Treat the mother as God
Pitru Devo Bhava - Treat the father as God
Âcârya Devo Bhava - Treat the teacher as
This is Indian Culture.
This is the first pillar of Indian culture: devotion and
obedience to mother, father, and guru.
Next, in what manner must
a child born of such parents conduct himself in society?
Speak the truth, he is advised. Never yield to falsehood
out of selfishness. Never follow unrighteousness for
self-interest. To uphold our respect in society, we
should speak the truth and follow dharma.
Indian Culture says:
Dharmam Chara - Speak the truth, follow
dharma. This is the second identifying feature of
Not just this. If we want
to experience unsullied reputation, we must strengthen
the faith that divinity is immanent in everyone. These
days, scientists claim that a microcosmic power pervades
the universe. They conduct complex experiments to
convince the world of their findings. There are only two
components present in this world: matter and
energy. One cannot exist without the other. Science
investigates into the interactions of matter and energy,
into the physical world accessible to the
Spirituality teaches the
same concept: People may be different. Names and forms
may differ, cultures may differ, but the force within
everyone is the One Âtmâ. Scientists
took thousands of years to discover this truth. Since
when? Not just in the modern era. The first scientist,
the greatest scientist, was Hiranyakas'ipu,
who existed thousands of years ago. Hiranyakas'ipu
investigated into the five elements that constitute
creation. He even brought the elements under his control!
[See S.B. 7.3
But despite his towering accomplishments in the physical
realm, Hiranyakas'ipu could not limit his own bad
qualities [see S.B. 7.8].
For this reason, what did
our ancients teach? Science is preoccupied with
describing the forces within an atom. Our ancient
says: "O foolish scientists! First of all, everything
is in You!" The external world has been described by
scientists. The inner cosmos is the subject of
Vedanta. Scientists are reluctant to develop inner
vision. And Vedanta has neglected the external
world. But which of these is more important? Students
should recognize one fact. You can see the branches,
leaves, flowers, and fruits of a tree. But the bases for
their existence are the unseen roots. Which are more
important, roots or branches? Without roots, branches
cannot exist. However, you may chop off the branches and
the roots will make them grow again. Those who are
content understanding the branches, venturing no further,
are scientists. The ones who go to the roots are
Scientists describe the
branches, the effects, not the cause. Therefore, the
Mûlâdhâra - Primal Cause - is
very important. Once we find the Primal Cause behind
everything, we can build a foundation upon it and live in
the world as we please.
Students know that two
parts of hydrogen and one part of oxygen produce water.
Scientists pride themselves on this discovery. Yes, you
can produce water. But if we ask, "Who created
hydrogen and oxygen?" there is no answer. When
confronted by such questions, scientists evade them by
saying, "Law of Nature". Fine. From where did
nature emerge? Who is its basis? When we inquire in this
fashion, the Mûlâdhâra is God
alone. No one can grasp divinity. We can only attempt
to describe it as a power that is changeless,
indestructible, omnipotent, omnipresent, and
The study that reveals to
us our innate divinity has been termed vidyâ
(education). Worldly studies do not measure up to
this qualification. However, worldly studies have got
their importance. Today man studies, gets a job, goes
overseas, accepts positions of authority - all for money
alone. Dhana mûlam idam jagat - Money is the
basis for the world. Money is the basis for worldly
existence. But Vedanta
does not give
it such importance.
idam jagat: Dharma is the basis for the world.
This is the declaration of Vedanta. This is Indian
You find planets
revolving around the sun, stars in distant galaxies
shining brightly, the moon orbiting the earth, rivers
flowing into the ocean, the sea rising and ebbing with
tides, and so on. All these phenomena occur within the
limits of dharma. When dharma is
transgressed, all is destroyed. All these activities are
possible only by adherence to dharma. These are
proofs of God's existence.
Yearn for True Knowledge
To discover the existence
of God is within everyone's capability. You do not need
degrees, education, skills, or proficiencies for this
achievement. All that is required is an effort to
understand the secrets of creation. Look at this world.
It is so vast, so full of wonders. From where has it
emerged? There are 5.700 million people in the world. Are
any two identical? Are there no distinctions even between
identical twins? Every individual is unique. Who designed
such a wondrous creation? This act of creation is not
possible for anyone. The mind cannot gauge its
Thus, the unseen divinity
underlies the visible world. Some people think, "I have
attained this", "I have made this discovery through my
experiments". They gloat over the smallest of
achievements. What the man of today knows is close to
nothing. But the pomp is huge. One who knows does not
indulge in publicity. The vessel full of water
remains steady. The half-full vessel rocks back and forth
noisily. Those who yield to self-praise have half
understanding (see: Pamphlet
for a New Energy Policy.
The Question of Energy and the Order of Time. The
Paradigm for the New World Order)
inquire. Make a determined attempt. Don't relax your
spiritual efforts in any way. What we need to recognize
is the Mûlâdhâra principle. This
principle is not visible through a telescope and cannot
be captured through a camera. You only need yearning in
your heart, which gets transformed into spiritual
inquiry. Without yearning, the search for God cannot be
sustained. Every student should cultivate yearning, "I
should know, I should know." Then you will realize
the fruits of your search for God, sooner or
Desires versus Ideals
Develop good thoughts.
Your desires may or may not be fulfilled. Students! You
are living for desires (âsa) today. This is
not the right approach. Live for ideals
(âsaya). Even if your desires are satisfied
today, what is the guarantee that tomorrow's desires will
be granted? But if you uphold ideals, people will follow
your example long after you die. Do not base your life on
desires - you are bound to meet disappointment one day or
the other. The only desire you should have is the desire
to follow ideals!
Today man wishes for a
long life. This is not important. A life permeated with
divine feelings is more desirable. A divine life, even
for a moment, brings lasting bliss and fame. What is the
meaning in surviving for a thousand years if you live a
crow's life? So, do not be satisfied with worldly
education. While pursuing your studies, acquire
Âtmâ Vidyâ as well.
Unity of Thought, Word and Deed
S'ankarâcârya went with thirteen disciples to
Kâs'î. With our extroverted intellect, we
think that "sin" means inconveniencing or harming others.
Students should recognize correctly what is meant by sin.
S'ankara was proceeding for a bath in the river Ganga. He
saw a boy, seated under a tree, learning by heart the
rules of grammar (dukrum-karane).
S'ankarâcârya stood for some time, observing
the student recite his lessons aloud. Then S'ankara
"My boy, why do you spend
time learning grammar?"
The student replied, "This will help me become a great
"Good. What do you hope to achieve after becoming a
"I will go to the King's court and become the Royal
"Fine, you will become famous. What will that fame give
"With fame, I will get as much wealth as I want."
"What happiness can you enjoy with wealth?"
"My family will live in pleasure and comfort."
"How long will that comfort last?"
"What will happen to you, your comforts and riches after
"I don't know."
Govindam Bhaja Govindam
Govindam Bhaja Moodha Mate
Sampraapte Sannihite Kaale
Nahi Nahi Rakshati Dukrunkarane
Sing the name
Sing Govinda's name, o fool!
When your final moments approach,
The rules of grammar will not save
refrain - mp3
complete - 31 verses
Think of God always.
Worldly knowledge is helpful only as long as the body
exists. You must leave the body one day or the other.
After giving this advice,
S'ankarâcârya bathed in the river Ganga and
proceeded to the temple for Lord S'iva's darshan.
He stood in front of the altar and prayed: "Swami, I have
come to You after committing three heinous sins. I pray
to You in expiation of those sins." Students should pay
careful attention to his words.
"I have extolled and
described You in many ways. However, I know that You are
Avâng Mânasa Gochara - beyond word
and thought. The Vedas say: Yatho
Vâcho Nivartante Aprâpya Mânasa Saha -
From where words and thoughts return, unable to
comprehend anything. That is You. I taught my
students that You are beyond word and thought. At the
same time, I dared to describe You.
I preached something and practiced otherwise. This is
my first sin."
how subtle is the concept of sin! To say something and do
something else is sin.
"I taught to everyone,
Îs'vara Sarva Bhûtânâm,
Îs'âvâsyam Idam Sarvam - God is
immanent in every being. You are present
But I have come to Kâs'î to see You as
Vis'ves'vara. Again, I acted contrary to my
words. This is my second sin.
Bhûta Antarâtmâ - God is present in
everyone. In fact, God is manifest as all beings. I
taught this truth. Now, am I not one of those beings? Is
God not present in me?
I have neglected the divinity in myself. I have journeyed
here to see myself! I considered myself different from
You. This is my third sin.
"So, Lord, my words and
actions are not in unity. Please free me from these
faults." Saying so, S'ankarâcârya closed his
eyes and meditated intently on the Lord. In a few
moments, he got the Lord's vision along with His
response. Vis'ves'vara told him: "S'ankara! Past
is past. Your repentance itself is atonement for your
sins. Take care that you do not repeat these
Meaning what? We must
repent for our mistakes. But today's devotees have no
sincere repentance. Whenever you commit a mistake, even
unknowingly, resolve, "I shall not repeat it." You
must not go back on your promise to God. Keep your words
and actions in unison. In the modern age it has been said
- The proper study of mankind is man. Meaning, the unity
of thoughts, words, and actions.
Keeping these three in
unity, love and respect your parents and teacher.
Consider your mother, father, and teacher as
Brahmâ, Vishnu, and Maheshvara
and make every effort to secure their blessings. This is
true worship. But we must not be content even with this.
Do not stop there and waste the sacred time at our
disposal. There is an unknown power pervading everything.
This sacred power is within your mother, father and
teachers. You must think, "I will worship, follow and
attain that divinity." For this reason, bhajans
(sacred songs, devoted singing, usually to the
service of one or more holy names ), japa (mantra
meditation), meditation, and sat-sanga
are very essential.
Now the term
sat-sanga (good company) is frequently
misunderstood. What is sat-sanga? Getting together
with devotees, singing bhajans, undertaking
pilgrimages, listening to interpretations of scriptures -
these are common conceptions of sat-sanga. But
this is only worldly sat-sanga. In fact, these are
not sat-sanga at all! The devotees around you have
many faults. Scholars also explain scriptures with some
expectation in mind. So, none of these can be true
Sat is derived
from Sat-cit-ânanda - Being, Awareness,
Bliss. Sat is being. Not this temporary, worldly
being, but the being that remains changeless through
past, present and future. Sat is devoid of name
and form. The form of Sat is bliss
(Ânanda). Sat is God.
cultivating thoughts of God is true sat-sanga! We
must acquire the company of godly thoughts, and thereby,
the company of God Himself. Assimilate the principle of
When we do this,
Cit (awareness) dawns. When we inquire into God,
all knowledge, all awareness becomes part of us. That
total awareness is Cit. Now, bliss
(ânanda) is the natural consequence of
Sat and Cit coming together.
So, the quality of
Sat is changeless. When these concepts are taught
with simple analogies, children absorb them easily.
Sat is sugar. You may mix sugar in pudding, tea,
coffee, water - its sweetness is constant. Sat is
the sweetness. God is the embodiment of sweetness.
Madhurâdhipate Madhuram Madhuram - God is
sweetness, sweetness, sweetness. In one hand, take
this sugar of Sat. In the other hand, take Cit -
awareness of the âtmâ. Everyone may
not be able to use Sat. For example, diabetic
patients are barred from sugar! Atheists are like
diabetics. They do not look at the sugar of Sat,
although they have the desire to taste it! But their
disease does not allow them to taste the
However, Cit -
total awareness - is essential for everyone. Cit
is like water. No one can survive without water. Water is
crucial for life. Therefore, water is a form of divinity.
All need water, be they millionaires or paupers,
renunciants or hedonists. This water is
jñâna - knowledge, awareness. Mix
sugar and water. The result is neither sugar not water,
but syrup. Unite Sat and Cit, and the syrup
of Ânanda (bliss) will flow in
Use Education to Serve Society
So, students! Think of
God on one hand. Pursue worldly education on the other
hand. Experience the sweetness of life by the unity of
these two. Life is meant to be of service to others. We
must be careful never to cause suffering to others.
Imbibe such skills and knowledge that will benefit you,
society and the world. Do not learn just to fulfill your
selfinterest. If you want to fall to a selfish state, why
take the trouble to be educated? You don't need
scriptures and spiritual inquiry in order to become
selfish! But to attain selflessness, you definitely need
In the past ten days, you
have participated in this Dharma - these are our
- Mâtru Devo Bhava, Pitru Devo Bhava,
Âcârya Devo Bhava -
These constitute our culture. When you keep these three
injunctions in view, when you experience divinity in
these three relations, only then will you experience the
unity of culture and spirituality, or the unity of matter
and energy. Matter + Energy = God.
Offer worldly resources
back to the world in useful forms. There is nothing
useless anywhere. We see a twig on the ground and think
it is useless. No, no. Even that is useful, for instance,
as a toothpick! But today, man himself is useless and
wasted. Why? Man does not know his own value. What is his
value? Man wrongly bases his worth on position, fame,
degrees and wealth. Yes, all these may be desired - but
within limits. When we cross limits, they become
dangerous instead of lending enjoyment.
Suppose you are thirsty.
Quench your thirst with a glass of water. But today's man
says, "I am not satisfied with a glass. I want to drink
the whole river Ganga!" If you try to drink Ganga, it
will drown you. This is only danger, not enjoyment.
Another example. You need air to live. Do you try to
inhale all the air in the world? The five elements must
be used within limits. The body needs heat to survive.
But the body cannot function with excessive heat, like a
105°F temperature. Have limits, have limits, have
Pursue education, acquire positions and remove the unrest
that plagues society. There are many agitations around
us. All of you should establish peace and security in
society and stand out as examples - blessing you with
this wish, I bring My long discourse to a
concluded with the Bhajan:
"Hey Giridhara Gopala, Hey Giridhara Gopala, Hey
Click to listen
Yaga: [Dhanur-dhâri = Archer, bearer of a
bow] ritual, ceremony, sacrifice or rite; the
ceremony of lifting the sacred bow. [see
known for its bitter leaves and medicinal properties.
In the Chandogya
Brahmâjî: the Creator. Demigod. There
is more than one Brahmâ. He's the first living
being originating from the navel of Vishnu. Sits on Mount
Meru in the middle of the lotus that is the creation.
- Aspect of Vishnu.
Origin of Lord S'iva.
- The personal representative of the creative aspect of
God; God as the Creator.
- The creative personality devoted to Krishna; creates a
world of his own.
- Father of the Kumâras and all other living
- The first being in the universe. He received from the
Supreme Lord the power to create everything in the
universe, of which he is the main ruler. He is part of a
group of twelve mahâjanas. Further is he the god
ruling passion (rajo-guna).
- The first created living being and secondary creator of
the material universe.
- The Unborn One or Self-born one. This name does
Brahmâ share with Krishna (Aja).
- One of the four priests during a sacrifice, the chief
- First of all was with his shadow ignorance created in
five varieties called tâmisra (forgetfulness),
andha tâmisra (the illusion of death), tama (not
knowing oneself), moha (the illusion of being matter) and
mahâmoha (mad after matter, craving)
Vishnu: God the maintainer,
ruler over the mode of goodness. Divided in three known
- Mahâ-Vishnu or Kâranodakas'âyî
Vishnu from whose pores all universes appear.
- Garbhodakas'âyî Vishnu: for each universe
laying down on a snake bed and with Lord Brahmâ
generating the complete diversity (Pradyumna).
- Kshirodaks'âyî Vishnu: for each living
entity locally present as the Paramâtmâ or
God in the heart.
- See for a description of the Vishnu-avatâras S.B
and S.B. 11:
S'iva: ('the auspicious')
demigod, also known as S'ankara (causing prosperity),
Bhava (of existence), S'ambhu (as the benficent), Mrida
(the compassionate) or Rudra (the gruesome), Giris'a (the
lord of the mountain), S'arva (he who kills with arrows)
and Mahâdeva (the great god). God of destruction,
rules over the mode of ignorance. Meditates with
Pârvatî on the mountain Kailâsa. Also
called the yogi of yogis. Originates from
with more qualities than his 'father' himself (see:
7). Known with
drum and japa and through his cosmic dance at the end of
Dharma (sanâtana-): that
religious dutifulness that is bound to Krishna and
results in the eternal values of satya, dayâ,
tapah, sauca (or dâna): truthfulness, compassion,
sobriety and purity (bull of dharma, see also
see S.B. 3.13:
Sva-dharma: one's own
nature, one's original nature (see e.g. 12.6:
- The acquired sense of duty in devotional service.
- The specific duty bent on selfrealization of a certain
living being in accordance with the religious
Hiranyakas'ipu ('he who
thinks of gold'): the king of the asuras, killed by
Krishna in His incarnation as Nrisimhadeva.
Hiranyakas'ipu's son was the great devotee Prahlâda
Mahârâja, brother of Hiranyâksha.
Hiranyâksha ('he who
lives for gold'): the demoniac son of Kas'yapa who was
killed by Lord Varâha. Formed together with his
demoniac brother Hiranyakas'ipu
a couple that once as Jaya and Viyaya guarded the
entrance of Vaikunthha but fell down in offense with the
Kumâras. (see: S.B. Canto
(knowledge-end): the conclusions of vedic knowledge as
laid down in the Bhagavad Gîtâ,
Vedânta-sûtra and the Upanishads and next in
the S'rîmad Bhâgavatam, who teach the highest
realization of the Absolute Truth: surrender to Krishna;
the essence of the vedic philosophy.
- During the "scholastic period" (700-1700), there were
three main variations developed of the classic
1) Advaita vedânta, or pure dualism, represented by
2) Vis'ishthadvaita vedânta, or qualified
non-dualism: the human spirit is separate and different
from the one Supreme Spirit though dependent on it and
ultimately to be united with it in its fulness expressed
in the vaishnava doctrine of Râmânuja.
3) Dvaita vedânta, dualism propagated by the
vaishnava saint Madhvâ (1197-1278)
In sum one knows six schools founded by:
- Râmânuja 1017-1127, vis'ishthadvaita the
adapted, or qualified Non-dualistic school. Oneness, but
the individual souls are different.
- Madhvâ 1197-1273, dvaita the dualistic
- Nimbârka late 13th century, dvaitadvaita the
dualistic non-dualistic school.
- Vallabha 1480-1530, s'udda advaita the pure advaita
- Caitanya 1485-1533, acintya bhedabheda tattva:
inscrutable oneness in diversity.
- Baladeva early 18th century, acintya bheda-abheda
follower of Caitanya.
Vidya (without accent):
finding, acquiring, gaining.
Vidyâ: any knowledge
whether true or false; science, learning, scholarship,
philosophy. Spiritually depending on the four principles
that lead to the spiritual knowing of
jñâna: tapas, sânkhya,
vairâgya and yoga: penance, analysis,
detachment and unification of the consciousness.
Sat-sanga: association of
devotees or simply sangam, to meet with; the
eternal bond of Krishna and His devotees.