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The original Sanskrit verses and
(word for word translated) of the
Mahābhārata, Bhīshma Parva ch. 23-40.

with comments taken from the writings of



 

 

 

 

'"Again Become a Mouse."
---
A mouse was very much harassed by a cat,
and therefore the mouse approached a saintly person
to request to become a cat. When the mouse became a cat,
he was harassed by a dog, and then when he became a dog,
he was harassed by a tiger.
But when he became a tiger, he stared at the saintly person,
and when the saintly person asked him,
"What do you want?" the tiger said, "I want to eat you."
Then the saintly person cursed him, saying,
"May you again become a mouse".'

 

1 2a 2b 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18a 18b

 

Chapter 11
The Yoga of the Universal Form
'On the confrontation with the complete of His reality'
 
Vis'varūpa Yoga

 

  

     " Listen to this chapter sung!  "
[Slokas 5 to 13, 15 to 18, 38 & 39]

" Listen to this spoken chapter in Audio "

      The Upanishads are the essence of the Vedas which are ahuman (a-pourusheya), imperishable and infinite. The Upanishads offer eternal truths that ennoble and elevate the mind. The Mahābhārata illustrates the spirit of the Upanishads in the form of a narrative. The Bhagavad Gītā offers the quintessence of the Mahābhārata. The Upanishads taught the people of the world in several ways to speak the truth and follow the path of righteousness. Those who regard the Gītā as the basis and goal of life attain the sacredness of divinity. The Gītā declares that the spirit of Krishna envelopes and resides in all that we see in this world. This is the significance of the vis'va-virāth-svarūpa of the Lord. To behold this universal manifestation, men with divine vision have made a conscious endeavor prompted by faith through the four paths of devotion, action, wisdom and yoga. - Summer Showers in Brindavan 1979, p. 30.

Verse 1.

 arjuna uvāca
mad-anugrahāya paramam
guhyam adhyātma-samjńitam
yat tvayoktam vacas tena
moho 'yam vigato mama

Verse 2.

bhavāpyayau hi bhūtānām
s'rutau vistaras'o mayā
tvattah kamala-patrāksha
māhātmyam api cāvyayam

Verse 3.

evam etad yathāttha tvam
ātmānam parames'vara
drashthum icchāmi te rūpam
ais'varam purushottama

Verse 4.

manyase yadi tac chakyam
mayā drashthum iti prabho
yoges'vara tato me tvam
dars'ayātmānam avyayam

      Arjuna joined both his palms and with uplifted hands he asked, "Krishna! The whole of creation is Your Form, is it not? Knowledge, wealth, power, strength, energy, splendor - all these are expressions of Your Glory, are they not? Well, will You not give me the sacred chance to fulfill my life's desire to experience You as all this creation as vis'va-rūpa, of the Form of Creation Itself? I plead with You. I pray at Your Feet." - Gītā Vahini, p. 173

Verse 5.

s'rī-bhagavān uvāca
pas'ya me pārtha rūpāni
s'atas'o 'tha sahasras'ah
nānā-vidhāni divyāni
nānā-varnākritīni ca

Verse 6.

pas'yādityān vasūn rudrān
as'vinau marutas tathā
bahūny adrishtha-pūrvāni
pas'yās'caryāni bhārata

Verse 7.

ihaika-stham jagat kritsnam
pas'yādya sa-carācaram
mama dehe gudākes'a
yac cānyad drashthum icchasi

Verse 8. 

na tu mām s'akyase drashthum
anenaiva sva-cakshushā
divyam dadāmi te cakshuh
pas'ya me yogam ais'varam

      Knowing the anguish of his heart, Krishna replied, "Arjuna! I shall certainly satisfy you. But your physical eyes cannot see that Glory. The vis'varūpa cannot be perceived by the limited vision that sees and grasps only this nature. Therefore, I shall confer on you the supernatural eye. Now, see!," He said and manifested Himself before him as creation and more. What great Mercy! What superb experience! -Gītā Vahini, pp. 173-4

  Verse 9.  

sańjaya uvāca
evam uktvā tato rājan
mahā-yoges'varo harih
dars'ayām āsa pārthāya
paramam rūpam ais'varam

      While at this point, there is one subtle detail that seekers have to note. The Vedas, Sāstras and Purānas, besides many scholars and saints and others who have a right to speak about such matters, all describe God as sarva-vyapi and sarva-bhuthantar-ātmā, that is, as present everywhere and the inner reality in every being. On the basis of this, some people argue, "If He is so present everywhere and in everything, why is He not seen by everyone?" For all such, the only reply is: how can the physical eye composed of the five elements see beyond the five?

      Nothing can illumine an object that does not reflect light; but a flame illumines itself and sheds light all around. God is self-luminous; He illumines all, He is beyond nature, which is but a manifestation of His Glory. So He can be seen only by the eye of wisdom, an eye that can be won only by His Grace. Hence, worship of God is an essential part of sādhana; he who fails in seeing himself can never succeed in seeing others, in seeing anything outside of him. Engage yourself in sādhana that will secure the Grace of God; through that Grace, the jńāna-netra, the eye of wisdom will be granted. He is easily reachable by the path of devotion. - Gītā Vahini, p. 174

Verse 10-11.  

aneka-vaktra-nayanam
anekādbhuta-dars'anam
aneka-divyābharanam
divyānekodyatāyudham 

divya-mālyāmbara-dharam
divya-gandhānulepanam
sarvās'caryamayam devam
anantam vis'vato-mukham

Verse 12.

divi sūrya-sahasrasya
bhaved yugapad utthitā
yadi bhāh sadris'ī sā syād
bhāsas tasya mahātmanah

      To acquire the awareness of the divine one need not journey to any special region or place. It is enough if the eye is turned inwards. In the Bhagavad Gītā, the inner reality, the ātmā is described as "splendrous like a billion suns". But, man has not become aware of the light and power within; he still flounders in the darkness of ignorance. - Sanathana Sarathi, Feb. 1977, p. 271

Verse 13.

tatraika-stham jagat kritsnam
pravibhaktam anekadhā
apas'yad deva-devasya
s'arīre pāndavas tadā

Verse 14.

tatah sa vismayāvishtho
hrishtha-romā dhanańjayah
pranamya s'irasā devam
kritāńjalir abhāshata


Verse 15.

arjuna uvāca
pas'yāmi devāms tava deva dehe
sarvāms tathā bhūta-vis'esha-sanghān
brahmānam īs'am kamalāsana-stham
rishīms' ca sarvān uragāms' ca divyān

       The manifestation of the vis'va-virāth-svarūpa does not show that God dwells in every object, but rather demonstrates that all things exist in Him. Therefore, we should direct our vision inwards and see the spark of the divine that we are, and not be engrossed in external pursuits. - Summer Showers in Brindavan 1979, p. 22

Verse 16.

aneka-bāhūdara-vaktra-netram
pas'yāmi tvām sarvato 'nanta-rūpam
nāntam na madhyam na punas tavādim
pas'yāmi vis'ves'vara vis'va-rūpa

Verse 17.

kirīthinam gadinam cakrinam ca
tejo-rās'im sarvato dīptimantam
pas'yāmi tvām durnirīkshyam samantād
dīptānalārka-dyutim aprameyam

      While experiencing the vision of God in the universe and God as the universe, Arjuna was shedding tears of joy. "Oh, Almighty God! All the gods, Brahmājī, the Creator, all the sages and saints, all the manifold beings and objects, moveable and immoveable: Oh, I see every one of these. I see all ... Oh, from Your terror-creating face, flames of splendor emerge and spread to farthest distances. How I wish I could know the meaning and purport of this formidable Form", Arjuna exclaimed. Gītā Vahini, p. 174

Verse 18.

tvam aksharam paramam veditavyam
tvam asya vis'vasya param nidhānam
tvam avyayah s'ās'vata-dharma-goptā
sanātanas tvam purusho mato me

      Life is not permanent. It is encased in the body, which is everchanging and is made up of the five senses and the five sheaths, and is compounded of the five elements and related to the kshara-purusha, that is subject to destruction and decay. But, life endowed with divinity is related to a-kshara, which cannot be destroyed. These two aspects, the destructible (kshara) and the indestructible (a-kshara) are also characterized as chara (unstable) and sthira (stable) respectively. Summer Showers in Brindavan 1979, p. 38

Verse 19.

anādi-madhyāntam ananta-vīryam
ananta-bāhum s'as'i-sūrya-netram
pas'yāmi tvām dīpta-hutās'a-vaktram
sva-tejasā vis'vam idam tapantam

Verse 20.

dyāv ā-prithivyor idam antaram hi
vyāptam tvayaikena dis'as' ca sarvāh
drishthvādbhutam rūpam ugram tavedam
loka-trayam pravyathitam mahātman

 Verse 21.

amī hi tvām sura-sanghā vis'anti
kecid bhītāh prāńjalayo grinanti
svastīty uktvā maharshi-siddha-sanghāh
stuvanti tvām stutibhih pushkalābhih

Verse 22.

rudrādityā vasavo ye ca sādhyā
vis've 's'vinau marutas' coshmapās' ca
gandharva-yakshāsura-siddha-sanghā
vīkshante tvām vismitās' caiva sarve

Verse 23.

rūpam mahat te bahu-vaktra-netram
mahā-bāho bahu-bāhūru-pādam
bahūdaram bahu-damshthrā-karālam
drishthvā lokāh pravyathitās tathāham

Verse 24.

nabhah-spris'am dīptam aneka-varnam
vyāttānanam dīpta-vis'āla-netram
drishthvā hi tvām pravyathitāntar-ātmā
dhritim na vindāmi s'amam ca vishno

Verse 25.

damshthrā-karālāni ca te mukhāni
drishthvaiva kālānala-sannibhāni
dis'o na jāne na labhe ca s'arma
prasīda deves'a jagan-nivāsa

      Through this eye of wisdom, Arjuna realized that the entire creation was contained in the divine vision. He realized that all living beings - human as well as animal and insect - were part of this vision. He realized that Krishna was responsible for all creation. He perceived that Krishna was present in every minute particle. Arjuna closed his eyes and the divine vision was there in all directions. - Summer Roses on the Blue Mountains, 1976, p. 51

 


Verse 26-27.

amī ca tvām dhritarāshthrasya putrāh
sarve sahaivāvani-pāla-sanghaih
bhīshmo dronah sūta-putras tathāsau
sahāsmadīyair api yodha-mukhyaih 

vaktrāni te tvaramānā vis'anti
damshthrā-karālāni bhayānakāni
kecid vilagnā das'anāntareshu
sandris'yante cūrnitair uttamāngaih

      The Kauravas (sons of Dhritarāshthra), who were terribly proud of their power and wealth, waged a war against the righteous Pāndavas but were annihilated completely. Their dynasty came to an ignominious end, because they followed the path of adharma and fought against the virtuous Pāndavas. - Summer Showers in Brindavan 1979, p. 172
Verse 28.

yathā nadīnām bahāvo 'mbu-vegāh
samudram evābhimukhā dravanti
tathā tavāmī nara-loka-vīrā
vis'anti vaktrāny abhivijvalanti

Verse 29.

yathā pradīptam jvalanam patangā
vis'anti nās'āya samriddha-vegāh
tathaiva nās'āya vis'anti lokās
tavāpi vaktrāni samriddha-vegāh

Verse 30.

lelihyase grasamānah samantāl
lokān samagrān vadanair jvaladbhih
tejobhir āpūryajagat samagram
bhāsas tavogrāh pratapanti vishno

Verse 31.

ākhyāhi me ko bhavān ugra-rūpo
namo 'stu te deva-vara prasīda
vijńātum icchāmi bhavantam ādyam
na hi prajānāmi tava pravrittim

Verse 32.

s'rī-bhagavān uvāca
kālo 'smi loka-kshaya-krit pravriddho
lokān samāhartum iha pravrittah
rite 'pi tvām na bhavishyanti sarve
ye 'vasthitāh pratyanīkeshu yodhāh

      The God of death is called Kāla, time. Time is the God of death; time knows no mercy; when the time is over, you have to leave; each day, your span is shortened by 24 hours. He is as omnipresent and omnipotent as Time. He does not run a rope factory to drag into his home all the millions who die. The dying person has the rope already spun and twisted round his neck. He has only to come and pull! He spins the rope by every act of his life, now or in the past. All acts done with egotism, self-interest, an eye on the beneficial consequences, give a little more length, a stronger twist, to that rope. Sathya Sai Speaks IV, pp. 337-8

Verse 33.

tasmāt tvam uttishthha yas'o labhasva
jitvā s'atrūn bhunkshva rājyam samriddham
mayaivaite nihatāh pūrvam eva
nimitta-mātram bhava savya-sācin

      "Arjuna, you are only instrumental in the propagation of My message. You are just an instrument in My hands", proclaimed Krishna to Arjuna. - Summer Showers in Brindavan 1979, p. 68

Verse 34.

dronam ca bhīshmam cajayadratham ca
karnam tathānyān api yodha-vīrān
mayā hatāms tvam jahi mā vyathishthhā
yudhyasva jetāsi rane sapatnān

      "Did you see Arjuna? Have you known by this that I am the Creator, Sustainer and Destroyer of all activity and of all beings and objects? Have you realized that you cannot save anyone on this battlefield, nor can you kill anyone? You have no power to kill, nor have they the power to die by their own efforts. Living and dying are both directed by My Will. I bear the burden of the earth; I create the burden; I relieve it," said Krishna, fondly patting Arjuna on the back and speaking softly to assuage his ecstatic excitement. - Gītā Vahini, p. 175

Verse 35.

 sańjaya uvāca
etac chrutvā vacanam kes'avasya
kritāńjalir vepamānah kirītī
namaskritvā bhūya evāha krishnam
sa-gadgadam bhīta-bhītah pranamya

Verse 36.

arjuna uvāca
sthāne hrishīkes'a tava prakīrtyā
jagat prahrishyaty anurajyate ca
rakshāmsi bhītāni dis'o dravanti
sarve namasyanti ca siddha-sanghāh

Verse 37.

kasmāc ca te na nameran mahātman
garīyase brahmano 'py ādi-kartre
ananta deves'a jagan-nivāsa
tvam aksharam sad-asat tat param yat

Verse 38.

tvam ādi-devah purushah purānas
tvam asya vis'vasya param nidhānam
vettāsi vedyam ca param ca dhāma
tvayā tatam vis'vam ananta-rūpa

      Arjuna prostrated before Krishna and was overwhelmed and began singing in ecstasy and said, "How can I know you Krishna? You are smaller than the smallest thing in this world and You are greater than the greatest thing in this world, You are the very basis of the 84 lakhs [lākh: one hundred thousand] of kinds of jīvas [individual souls] in this world. You are infinitely great and You cannot be compared even with the greatest thing in this world, and You are the source of everything that can be seen and I now surrender to You and will do whatever You ask me to do without any question." An Avatāra [descend of the Supreme Lord] is capable of all things at all times, yet the avatāra will not undertake to demonstrate His powers at all times. An avatāra will undertake to demonstrate such powers when exceptional circumstances demand it and will shed the grace on a deserving person only. - Summer Roses on the Blue Mountains 1976, p. 5

Verse 39.

vāyur yamo 'gnir varunah s'as'ānkah
prajāpatis tvam prapitāmahas' ca
namo namas te 'stu sahasra-kritvah
punas' ca bhūyo 'pi namo namas te

Verse 40.

namah purastād atha prishthhatas te
namo 'stu te sarvata eva sarva
ananta-vīryāmita-vikramas tvam
sarvam samāpnosi tato 'si sarvah

Verse 41-42.

sakheti matvā prasabham yad uktam
he krishna he yādava he sakheti
ajānatā mahimānam tavedam
mayā pramādāt pranayena vāpi 

yac cāvahāsārtham asat-krito 'si
vihāra-s'ayyāsana-bhojaneshu
eko 'tha vāpy acyuta tat-samaksham
tat kshāmaye tvām aham aprameyam

      Sneha is ... usually translated as friendship - but, that word has been vulgarized by application to a number of transitory friendships between living beings ... Friendship ought to be a spiritual bond, a heart to heart kinship, based on full understanding of each other and pure dedication, one to the other ... Genuine friendship can only be between an ātmā and another, that is to say, between persons who have realized that the ātmā is the core of their being ... Arjuna and Krishna had this genuine sneha. Arjuna says in the Gītā that he considered Krishna as his sakha or friend and had the temerity to use "words of jesting irreverence during play, or while reposing, or when seated at meals" (vihāra-s'ayyāsana-bhojaneshu). They ate meals from the same plate very often, Arjuna rested with his head on Krishna's lap or Krishna rested keeping his head on the lap of Arjuna. They helped each other under all circumstances, and spoke soft and sweet to each other. - Sanathana Sarathi, Sept. 1978, p. 164
Verse 43.

pitāsi lokasya carācarasya
tvam asya pūjyas' ca gurur garīyān
na tvat-samo 'sty abhyadhikah kuto 'nyo
loka-traye 'py apratima-prabhāva

Verse 44.

tasmāt pranamya pranidhāya kāyam
prasādaye tvām aham īs'am īdyam
piteva putrasya sakheva sakhyuh
priyah priyāyārhasi deva sodhum

Verse 45.

adrishtha-pūrvam hrishito 'smi drishthvā
bhayena ca pravyathitam mano me
tad eva me dars'aya deva rūpam
prasīda deves'a jagan-nivāsa

      Arjuna prayed that Krishna become evident to him as a friend and comrade rather than as the Immanent Director, the Transcendent Sovereign, the Innate Substance of all that is, was and will be! He longed for the joy of kinship rather than the bliss of mergence. To conceive of the divine as the inner core and the outer shell of every atom and plant, every speck of dust and every system of nebulae, as well as oneself is an exercise that overwhelms individuality and so, Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and others have prayed for the role of adorer, rather than the abolition of roles! - Sathya Sai Speaks VII, p. 184

Verse 46.

kirīthinam gadinam cakra-hastam
icchāmi tvām drashthum aham tathaiva
tenaiva rūpena catur-bhujena
sahasra-bāho bhava vis'va-mūrte

      Arjuna wiped the tears from his eyes; he folded his hands in 'prayer, "o Lord, I see the vis'va-rūpa, which I had never seen or heard about, or even conceived. I realize that it is a factual Ttuth. Those terrific flames of splendor are scorching me, my body is sizzling under the impact of that glory. Present Yourself before me, once again, with the sweet, smiling form of Yours; I can no longer bear this Vision. Father! Resume Your form, I cannot continue to look upon this," pleaded Arjuna. - Gītā Vahini, p. 175


Verse 47.

s'rī bhagavān uvāca
mayā prasannena tavārjunedam
rūpam param dars'itam ātma-yogāt
tejomayam vis'vam anantam ādyam
yan me tvad anyena na drishtha-pūrvam

Verse 48.

na veda-yajńādhyayanair na dānair
na ca kriyābhir na tapobhir ugraih
evam rūpah s'akya aham nri-loke
drashthum tvad anyena kuru-pravīra

Verse 49.

mā te vyathā mā ca vimūdha-bhāvo
drishthvā rūpam ghoram īdrin mamedam
vyapeta-bhīh prīta-manāh punas tvam
tad eva me rūpam idam prapas'ya

Verse 50.

sańjaya uvāca
ity arjunam vāsudevas tathoktvā
svakam rūpam dars'ayāmāsa bhūyah
ās'vāsayāmāsa ca bhītam enam
bhūtvā punah saumya-vapur mahātmā

Verse 51.

arjuna uvāca
drishthvedam mānusham rūpam
tava saumyam janārdana
idānīm asmi samvrittah
sa-cetāh prakritim gatah

Verse 52

s'rī bhagavān uvāca
su-durdars'am idam rūpam
drishthavān asi yan mama
devā apy asya rūpasya
nityam dars'ana-kānkshinah

Verse 53.

nāham vedair na tapasā
na dānena na cejyayā
s'akya evam-vidho drashthum
drishthavān asi mām yathā

Verse 54.

bhaktyā tv ananyayā s'akya
aham evam-vidho 'rjuna
jńātum drashthum ca tattvena
praveshthum ca parantapa

      "... Arjuna! You have just seen this Universal Form of Mine, a vision that no height of vedic scholarship or ritual asceticism or austerity can ever hope to win. This is achieved only by the bhakta who is devoted to Me, with ananyayā bhakti; devotion that does not admit of the least distraction. Such bhaktas see only the Lord; whatever they do, they do as worship to the Lord. They have no other form before their eyes; no other thought in their minds; no other act for their hands. At all times and places, they see only My form, they utter only My name; they think only about Me; they feel only for Me or about Me; they are active only for My sake. It is such, oh Arjuna, that attain this vision. I too ask for only this ananyayā-bhakti." - Gītā Vahini, pp. 175-6

      The Bhagavad Gītā has given the three words jńātum drashthum ca tattvena praveshthum. The word jńātum means knowing by inquiry. We should enquire about the aspect of "I" ... Therefore, while we must first understand the jivesvara prakriti or the nature of "I", of the "world", and of "Brahman", there has to be a second step and that is to visualize all of them. Even this is not final, and there has to be a third step of your entering into the whole aspect, and identifying yourself with it. You cannot attain the experience of happiness and bliss by mere study and practice. It is only when you identify completely with it that you will be able to experience the full significance of it. These steps have been referred to as drashthum and tattvena praveshthum. It means that you have to inquire, visualize and then become one with it. You begin with the quest in the nature and origin of "I", then attain the experience of its vision, and get released by realizing the non-difference between the witness and the witnessed. - Summer Showers in Brindavan 1973, pp. 242

Verse 55.

mat-karma-krin mat-paramo
mad-bhaktah sanga-varjitah
nirvairah sarva-bhūteshu
yah sa mām eti pāndava

 

 

 

Kāla: eternal Time, cosmic time. The impersonal visible aspect of Krishna. That what moves the material energy. Consecution of moments in relation to the sun, the moon and the stars, known by the rotation of the earth.
- The paramparā ('one after the other' - disciplic succession) says: 'It is understood from the Vedic science of epistemology, the 'Nyāya -s'āstra', that knowledge of an object (prameya) depends on a valid means of knowing (pramāna)' (pp 10.86: 54). So would to know Krishna in the form of Time as-He-is (I am the Time, the light of the sun and the moon, as He says in the Gītā to be the objective of the universe) - by means of clocks managed validly to His nature, the Sun as with a sundial, and calendars managed validly to His order, the moon, like with its phases - constitute the proper brahminical conduct. With weeks to the moon and clocks to the sun, would standardtime with its mean time deadness, zone time arbitrary false oneness and summertime instability, constitute the time of ignorance in denial of Krishna, the father of Time, even though Krishna affirms the worship of Time with the pragmatical and thus karmic dictate of standardtime, to which He still calls that demigod (...) worship less attractive and wrong (see also,
S.B. 1.2: 26, B.G. 9.23, 10: 21, 30 & 33, 7: 8 and the Bhāgavatam timequotes page).
- There are four ways of settling for the purity of time in reference to something else: by speech, by ritual, by accordance or by telling the difference; thus seen is standard time acceptable provided one is of these four methods (see
S.B. 11.21: 10).
- To the body there are of time six phases: birth, growth, maintenance, production of by-products, dwindling and death.
- That time is valid which, either by its own nature (the not-for-profit time of nature) or the same way to the person (the Lord, or the object, the lakshmī, the time for harvesting etc.), is suitable for executing one's prescribed duty; and bad and offensive is the time that impedes one's duty, the time that is unsuitable for doing work (lust- and profit-minded time (see also kālakūta and
S.B. 11.21: 9).
- Quoted from dharmakshetra.com: Time is often referred to as " the wheel of time" because the mundane creation manifests, remains for awhile then dissolves. After the destruction, either partial or final, creation starts all over again, like the wheel in a cyclic motion!

There are innumerable universal eggs or universes that are created and destroyed systematically by the breathing of Maha-Vishnu. His exhalation causes their creation and His inhalation, their destruction. Our particular universe exists for the duration of Brahma's life span i.e. a total of one hundred of Brahma's years. This is about 311 trillion human years. We are right now in the midpoint of Brahma's lifetime. The current day of Brahma is the first day of a new year; "today" being Brahma's fiftieth "birthday." Each year consists of 360 days and nights. One day of Brahma is subdivided into 14 manvantaras each consisting of 71 yuga cycles. We are in the 7th of the 14 manvantaras; and the 28th of the 71 yuga cycles. Each cycle consists of Satya, Treta, Dvapara and Kali. We are 5000 years into the Kali-yuga.

It is near  "noon" on Lord Brahmā's fiftieth "birthday." Puranic information states that this is the first day of Brahmā's fiftieth year (out of 100 yrs total).  This is the 7th manvantara out of 14, and the 28th yuga cycle out of 71. We are 5.000 years into age of Kali.  The age of the universe and Brahma is said to be 155,521,972,949,000 of our earth's years.'

- One year of the gods equals 360 human years.

- The progress of kāla is described as being of a continuous (nitya), occasional (naimittika), natural (elemental or prākrita) and final (ātyantika) type of annihilation or pralaya (S.B. 12.4: 38).

   

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