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The original Sanskrit verses and
(word for word translated) of the
Mahābhārata, Bhīshma Parva ch. 23-40.

with comments taken from the writings of





'O King, over and over remembering this wonderful message so Holy of Keśava and Arjuna,
delights me time and again.
I am convinced that wherever there is the Lord of Yoga Krishna and the son of Prithā
carrying the bow and arrows, that there opulence, victory, great power and morality are assured.'

1 2a 2b 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18a 18b


Chapter 18b
The Yoga of Liberation through Renunciation
'About renunciation and its threefold nature'
Moksha Sannyāsa Yoga  



   " Listen to this spoken chapter in Audio "

     " Listen to this chapter sung! "
slokas 61, 63, 65, 66, 76 & 78]

Verse 41.

śūdrānām ca parantapa
karmāni pravibhaktāni
svabhāva-prabhavair gunaih

      The four varnas are universal; they can be found in any country.The leaders of thought are the brahmins; the fighters carrying arms are the kshatriyas; the entrepreneurs and the business executives are the vaiśyas; the busy producers and laborers are the śūdras. Whether head or heels, it is the same blood that circulates through each; it is the same body that claims them as limbs. Each limb has to perform its task, the task for which it has specialized. You cannot walk on your head or think with the feet. It is a cooperative commonwealth, the body as weII as the body politic. The eye is the master of sight; the ear cannot question the authority of the eye, nor the eye that of the ear about sound, nor the ear that of the tongue so far as taste is concerned. Each is the master in its own field. - Sathya Sai Speaks IV, p. 159

 Verse 42.

śamo damas tapah śaucam
kshāntir ārjavam eva ca
j˝ānam vij˝ānam āstikyam
brahma-karma svabhāva-jam

      Those endowed with the satva guna, who have understood the Brahma-tatvam, who foster spiritual, moral and progressive living, who help others to earn the bliss of visualizing the reality of their own nature, are the brahmins. - Gītā Vahini, p. 65

Verse 43.

śauryam tejo dhritir dākshyam
yuddhe cāpy apalāyanam
dānam īśvara-bhāvaś ca
kshātram karma svabhāva-jam

      Those who stand by and guard the sound political system, law and justice, as weII as the welfare and prosperity of the country, and the moral order laid down for the people; and who keep under control the wicked and the immoral and come to the rescue of the weak and the distressed - these are the kshatriyas. - Gītā Vahini, p. 65

Verse 44.

vaiśya-karma svabhāva-jam
paricaryātmakam karma
śūdrasyāpi svabhāva-jam

      Those who store and supply within proper limits to the people at large the wherewithal for happy physical living are vaiśyas. Those who lay the foundation for human welfare by service activities and provide the strength and sinews are śūdras. - Gītā Vahini, p. 65

Verse 45.

sve sve karmany abhiratah
samsiddhim labhate narah
sva-karma-niratah siddhim
yathā vindati tac chrinu

Karma or activity is primarily movement, motion. Movement results in energy and matter is but condensed energy ... Life is karma; the body is karma-kshetra. All living things are engaged in karma offering themselves in sacrificial rite of ceaseless activity. The fruit of that sacrifice is self-realization. - - Sathya Sai Speaks VIII, p. 183

Verse 46.

yatah pravrittir bhūtānām
yena sarvam idam tatam
sva-karmanā tam abhyarcya
siddhim vindati mānavah

      The secret of good karma is to do karma as an act of worship, a dedicatory rite offered to the source of all energy and intelligence. And never take the consequence to heart. By this means, one can approximate to the divine principle, which is beyond activity. - Sathya Sai Speaks VIII, p. 14

Verse 47.

śreyān sva-dharmo vigunah
para-dharmāt sv-anushthhitāt
svabhāva-niyatam karma
kurvan nāpnoti kilbisham

      Then Krishna emphasizes the importance of sva-dharma. Sva-dharma is individual dharma or a code of conduct in conformity with an individual's status in society. It also is determined by a person's natural instincts. - Summer Showers in Brindavan 1979, p. 26

Verse 48.

saha-jam karma kaunteya
sa-dosham api na tyajet
sarvārambhā hi doshena
dhūmenāgnir ivāvritāh

      It is only in the karma that is your very nature that you can have fortitude; if it is an assumed duty, you will find it difficult to put up with the troubles and travails. Assumed karma is called saha-jam karma. Karma that is the expression of one's genuine self is saha-jam karma. Now saha-jam karma will sit light and a-saha-jam karma will always be a burden. A-saha-jam will induce conceit, or the feeling "I am the doer"; so it will result in exhaustion or elation, disgust or pride. - Gītā Vahini, p. 49

Verse 49.

asakta-buddhih sarvatra
jitātmā vigata-sprihah
naishkarmya-siddhim paramām

      One meaning of karma that is popularly accepted is that it is one's destiny or fate, the inescapable "writing" on the brow, which has to work itself out. There is no escaping it. But people forget that it is not written by some other hand. It is all written by one's own hand. And the hand that wrote it can also wipe it off. The husk with which the paddy is born can be removed by effort; the māyā that persuaded you to write all that destiny can be conquered in an instant and then, the entire page can be wiped off. - Sathya Sai Speaks VIII, p. 86

Verse 50.

siddhim prāpto yathā brahma
tathāpnoti nibodha me
samāsenaiva kaunteya
nishthhā j˝ānasya yā parā

      If one knows the aspects of ātmā one can enjoy bliss. If one does not know the same, will suffer; knowledge of Brahman leads one to merge into Brahman. This word of Sai is a statement of truth. - Summer Showers in Brindavan 1978, p. 98

Verse 51-53.

buddhyā viśuddhayā yukto
dhrityātmānam niyamya ca
śabdādīn vishayāms tyaktvā
rāga-dveshau vyudasya ca 

vivikta-sevī laghv-āśī
dhyāna-yoga-paro nityam
vairāgyam samupāśritah

 ahankāram balam darpam
kāmam krodham parigraham
vimucya nirmamah śānto
brahma-bhūyāya kalpate 

      To be able to experience the aspect of Brahman which itself is above sensory capacities, we should also rise above the senses. How can we understand something above the senses, while we remain in a stage that is below the senses? When we become equal minded we can rise above the trivialities of name and form. There is a deep significance in saying that all the world is filled with Brahman. We recall that Sankara has said that Brahman is truth and the world is an illusion ... Thus the world is filled with Brahman. Without Brahman, there is no world. The whole world is only an illusory manifestation of Brahman. - Summer Showers in Brindavan 1974, pp. 54-5
Verse 54.

brahma-bhūtah prasannātmā
na śocati na kānkshati
samah sarveshu bhūteshu
mad-bhaktim labhate parām

      Simply because you have the form of the human body, you should not think that you are truly human in nature. Only the external form tells you that you are human. The inner aspect is the aspect of Brahman. Brahman is one who has no specific form or qualities, and such Brahman is present in the depths of your heart. While He is present in your heart, it is not right for you to put up several pretences and false appearances. The body is the temple and the Jīva is the ancient deity residing in that temple. Therefore, the aspect of Brahman that is permanent and is symbolic of truth is resident in your heart and if, under these circumstances, you begin to exhibit desires and show distortions, it will be doing injustice to this permanent resident in your heart. Therefore, you should make an effort to enter this aspect of Brahman even if it be to a small extent and thereby help others, take to good actions and a good path and enjoy the fruits of such good deeds. - Summer Showers in Brindavan 1974, p. 41

Verse 55.

bhaktyā mām abhijānāti
yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvatah
tato mām tattvato j˝ātvā
viśate tad-anantaram

      As the oil is to the flame in the lamp, bhakti (devotion) is to the flame of j˝āna (knowledge). The heavenly tree of the joy of j˝āna thrives on the refreshing waters of bhakti. Understand this well.

It is for this reason that Krishna, who is the personification of prema and who is saturated with the quality of mercy, declared in the Gītā: "bhaktyā mām abhijānāti" (I am known by means of bhakti). - Jnana Vahini, p. 18

Verse 56.

sarva-karmāny api sadā
kurvāno mad-vyapāśrayah
mat-prasādād avāpnoti
śāśvatam padam avyayam

      The sankhyans use a number of arguments against action or karma. Karma causes both punya and papa, goed and evil, and so it is said, "the wise must give up all karma". In the Gītā, Krishna has met this argument and shown the way to get the good out of karma and avoid the evil. They further say that if karma is engaged in, the results are a mixture of pain and pleasure, benefit and loss, and it leads the doer either to heaven or hell or back again to the earth, that is to say, to bondage of some sort. So, they ask people to give up karma and take to inaction. The Gītā has a reply for this also. Karma will bring about bondage, only when it is engaged in with a view to the fruit thereof. When done without any thought of the fruit, it leads on the other hand, to liberation, or moksha itself! - Prasanthi Vahini, p. 48

Verse 57.

cetasā sarva-karmāni
mayi sannyāsya mat-parah
buddhi-yogam upāśritya
mac-cittah satatam bhava

      When the desire to attain the fruit of action is renounced with full intellectual awareness, then comes what Krishna calls buddhi-yogam. The intellect has to be purified and trained; otherwise, it is impossible to give up attachment to the fruits of action and to continue doing things, as either duty or dedication. Such a purified intellect is named yoga-buddhi. Cultivate it and then, through it, liberate yourself from the bondage of karma. Really speaking, you, the true you, are above and beyond karma. - Gītā Vahini, p. 33

Verse 58.

mac-cittah sarva-durgāni
mat-prasādāt tarishyasi
atha cet tvam ahankārān
na śroshyasi vinankshyasi

      A sense of joy is necessary for dhyānam (exercising meditation on the Supreme Lord, who resides in the heart as the Supersoul) and dhāranā (concentration, retention, understanding, firmness, holding, bearing, collecting, supporting) to progress, but many things deprive you of the atmosphere of joy. So you must pray sincerely, in order to be free from such obstacles. The recital or repetition of mantras will be of great help. Krishna in the Dvāpara Yuga said, "mac-cittah sarva-durgāni mat-prasādāt tarishyasi", which means, "When you start fixing your thoughts on Me, all thoughts that agitate you will be stilled through My Grace". - Dhyana Vahini, p. 42

Verse 59.

yad ahankāram āśritya
na yotsya iti manyase
mithyaisha vyavasāyas te
prakritis tvām niyokshyati

      Ahankāram or egoism is the māyā. - Sathya Sai Speaks II, p. 95

Verse 60.

svabhāva-jena kaunteya
nibaddhah svena karmanā
kartum necchasi yan mohāt
karishyasy avaśo 'pi tat

      Karma (activity and deeds resulting therefrom) are binding because they have consequences that must be suffered or enjoyed. - Bhagavatha Vahini, chapter 32.



Verse 61.

īśvarah sarva-bhūtānām
hrid-deśe 'rjuna tishthhati
bhrāmayan sarva-bhūtāni
yantrārūdhāni māyayā

      You must realize by constant contemplation that the world is the body of God. And, you are a cell in that body. The prosperity of the world is your prosperity; feel so, act in that spirit; think in those terms. That is real spirituality. The sadhak cannot cut himself away from the world and escape into solitude, for the world will follow him into the deepest cave or the darkest forest. The sadhak can claim progress only when he has established in himself faith in the oneness of humanity. "īśvarah sarva-bhūtānām hrid-deśe 'rjuna tishthhati", says the Gītā. O Arjuna, the Lord is seated in the hearts of all beings. - Sathya Sai Speaks VIII, p. 167

      Bharat has contributed to the world the priceless gem of truth: "īśvarah sarva-bhūtānām hrid-deśe 'rjuna tishthhati", God is the resident motivator of all beings. Until this fact is realized by the individual, he will be tainted by traces of anger, pride and hate, for he sees others as distinct and different. -Sathya Sai Speaks VI, p. 243

Verse 62.

tam eva śaranam gaccha
sarva-bhāvena bhārata
tat-prasādāt parām śāntim
sthānam prāpsyasi śāśvatam

Saranagathi or unconditional surrender is the main gate to enter the mansion of mukti (moksha). - Sathya Sai Speaks III, p. 99

Saranagathi, leaving everything to His Will, is the highest form of bhakti. - Sathya Sai Speaks I, p. 15

The Lord may have two or two hundred vows; that is His Will. But, the bhakta need have only one vow, to save himself - the vow of total surrender, of saranagathi. If you have full faith in the divinity of every being, the attitude of surrender will be automatically fixed in you. Do not treat them as nara (human); treat them as Nārāyana, the Lord Himself.

Verse 63.

iti te j˝ānam ākhyātam
guhyād guhyataram mayā
vimriśyaitad aśeshena
yathecchasi tathā kuru

Verse 64.

sarva-guhyatamam bhūyah
śrinu me paramam vacah
ishtho 'si me dridham iti
tato vakshyāmi te hitam



Verse 65.

man-manā bhava mad-bhakto
mad-yājī mām namaskuru
mām evaishyasi satyam te
pratijāne priyo 'si me

      "Fix thy thought on Me; be devoted to Me; worship Me; do homage to Me; thou shalt reach Me. The Truth do I declare to thee; for thou art dear to Me. This is My teaching, My grace." - Gītā Vahini, p. 7

      When Arjuna plaintively approached Krishna for courage and consolation, the Lord advised him, "man-manā bhava". Fill your mind with Me. Let all urges be for Me; let all acts be dedicated to Me. - Sathya Sai Speaks VI, p. 122

      Krishna in the Gītā declared against the worship of low forces. He said those who adore the devas attain the devas; those who adore the Manes (pitrin: ancestors/forefathers) attain the Manes; those who adore the low forces attain them; but, those who adore Me, attain Me (B.G. 9:25). He said, man-manā bhava mad-bhakto mad-yājī mām namaskuru (B.G. 9:34). Fill your mind with Me, be devoted to Me, renounce for My sake, surrender to Me. - Sathya Sai Speaks VII, p. 306

      Manmāna - that is, seeing Him in every being, being aware of Him every moment of existence, being immersed in the ānanda of this awareness; Mad-bhakto - that is, merged in the relationship caused by the profound devotion and love to Him; Mad-yājī - all acts, big and small, dedicated to Him, Krishna (wish, will, attitude, activity, fruit, consequence) everything from beginning to end, the renunciation of all attachment to the self and the performance of all acts in a spirit of worshipful non-attachment. This is what the Lord seeks from you. - Gītā Vahini, pp. 7-8

      "mām evaishyasi satyam te" (you will come near Me, you will be approaching Me); that is to say, you will understand My mystery, you will enter into Me, you will achieve My nature. In these terms, sādrisya (acquiring divine nature) sālokya (existence in God) sayujya (unity in God), are indicated. When one has attained the state of realizing the divinity in every being, when every instrument of knowledge brings the experience of that divinity, when It alone is seen, heard, tasted, smelt and touched, man becomes undoubtedly a part of the body of God and lives in Him and with Him. When this duty to your own progress is taken up you will get a new strength at the very first step; you will thrill to a new and purer joy, you will taste the fullness of bliss, you will be refreshed by a new holiness.

This dharma is not laid down or recommended for the extraordinary among men. It is within the reach of all, for all have the hunger for God, all have the discrimination to discover that there is something basic behind all this change. Even the most heinous sinner can quickly cleanse his heart and become pure by surrendering to the Lord in anguished repentance.

Therefore, the Lord's command is that each should pursue the special dharma laid down for him; each person should plan his life according to the spiritual foundations of his culture; he should give up the "objective vision" and listen to the voice of God. - Gītā Vahini, pp. 8-9

Verse 66.

sarva-dharmān parityajya
mām ekam śaranam vraja
aham tvām sarva-pāpebhyo
mokshayishyāmi mā śucah

      "This is the path to come to Me. Give up all dharmas; surrender to Me; do not grieve; I shall liberate you from the consequences of all your acts." ... Is not this act of surrender enough to save you and to liberate you from the round of coming to - staying in - and leaving from this world? - Gītā Vahini, p. 7

      Krishna says in the Gītā that He will release you from bondage, the moment you renounce sarva-dharman, all feelings of obligation and responsibilities, of rights and duties, of "from me" and "to me"; that is to say, He requires the renunciation of the identity of the individual with the body.

That is the dharma, the supreme duty, which Krishna had come to teach. Man has a duty to himself - recognizing that he is divine, and nothing else. When he neglects this, and strays into the bypaths, God incarnates and brings him on the right path again. - Sathya Sai Speaks VII, pp. 149-50

      The Mahābhārata War is not a chapter in ancient history, it is taking place in every human breast, between the forces of good and evil. He who recognizes the value of installing the Lord, the Yogeśvara, Krishna as the charioteer is certain to win; others fail to foil the forces of evil; they succumb and fail. Accept Him as your Master; surrender all activities to Him; dedicate your words and deeds and thoughts to Him, as flowers at His feet; He assures you "mokshayishyāmi" - "I shall liberate you"; He assuages you, "mā śucah" - "do not grieve". - Sathya Sai Speaks V, p. 37

      Surrender your jewels of intelligence, cleverness, capacity to serve and the gem that you most value, namely, your EGO to the care of God; then, you can be happy. "Maam edkam saranam vraja", he invites; surrender to Me alone. Then He assures, "Maa sucha", you need not grieve at all. - Sathya Sai Speaks V, p. 214

Verse 67.

idam te nātapaskāya
nābhaktāya kadācana
na cāśuśrūshave vācyam
na ca mām yo 'bhyasūyati

      The Lord has shown in the Gītā that you could preach only after recognizing the merit or qualification and worthiness of the recipient. It is explicit that there is no point in teaching such a good thing to one who has no belief. You must see whether he has faith and belief or not. You must also see that the recipient has fear of sin and reverence for God. Unless he has these qualities, the recipient has no right to receive the good and great teaching - that is contained in the Bhagavad Gītā. Not only that, your teaching may become irrelevant if you go and teach one who has not these qualities. - Summer Showers in Brindavan 1972, p. 105

Verse 68.

ya idam paramam guhyam
mad-bhakteshv abhidhāsyati
bhaktim mayi parām kritvā
mām evaishyaty asamśayah  

Verse 69.

na ca tasmān manushyeshu
kaścin me priya-krittamah
bhavitā na ca me tasmād
anyah priyataro bhuvi

Verse 70.

adhyeshyate ca ya imam
dharmyam samvādam āvayoh
j˝āna-yaj˝ena tenāham
ishthah syām iti me matih

      Liberation from the consequence of ignorance can be secured only by knowledge, or j˝āna. The Upanishads themselves declare "j˝ānād eve thu kaivalyam" by knowledge alone can freedom be won. - Upanishad Vahini, I.

Verse 71.

śraddhāvān anasūyaś ca
śrinuyād api yo narah
so 'pi muktah śubhāl lokān
prāpnuyāt punya-karmanām

      Spiritual knowledge can be acquired by every individual, "Where there is a will, there is a way." The first step on the path of spirituality is the acquisition of anasūyas or freedom from envy, jealousy, malice and covetousness. Asūya or jealousy should be completely rooted out of the human heart and śraddhā-vān or perseverance should be cultivated instead. The ātmā should be visualized through meditation. The sincere and persistent sādhaka will then certainly have spiritual experiences and mystical revelations. - Summer Showers in Brindavan 1979, p. 142

Verse 72.

kaccid etac chrutam pārtha
tvayaikāgrena cetasā
kaccid aj˝āna-sammohah
pranashthas te dhana˝jaya

      To get the fruit of gītā-parayana, ekagratha is essential. Krishna asks Arjuna, "Has this been heard by you with an attentive mind? Have you heard it without distraction?" For the battle-field where they were, had plenty of distractions to disturb the concentration of Arjuna's mind from the invaluable lessons he was receiving from Krishna. It is really admirable that Arjuna, seated in the chariot between the two armies, manages to master his mind and rid it of all the passions with which it was filled when he rode in for the fray! Truly, he is an ideal disciple. You should thank him for eliciting the Bhagavad Gītā for all humanity. - Sathya Sai Speaks II, p. 53

Verse 73.

arjuna uvāca
nashtho mohah smritir labdhā
tvat-prasādān mayācyuta
sthito 'mi gata-sandehah
karishye vacanam tava

      After listening to the Gītā and seeing the manifestation of the Lord as the entire universe, Arjuna confessed that he has lost the delusion; "nashtho mohah". The disappearance of delusion is the liberation all crave for. Moksha is the kshaya (disappearance) of moha (delusion). - Sathya Sai Speaks VII, p. 308

Verse 74.

sa˝jaya uvāca
ity aham vāsudevasya
pārthasya ca mahātmanah
samvādam imam aśrausham
adbhutam roma-harshanam

Verse 75.

vyāsa-prasādāc chrutavān
etad guhyam aham param
yogam yogeśvarāt krishnāt
sākshāt kathayatah svayam

      Yogeśvarāt is one whose deeds are unselfish, who works for the welfare of the world, and who embodies the spirit of sacrifice. The attributes of purity, permanence and bliss are applicable to divinity. So, God has been described as having eight qualities. He is absolute, immaculate, ancient, eternal, spotless, wise, unfettered and untainted. The devotee who takes shelter at the feet of such divinity shall be ever victorious. - Summer Showers in Brindavan 1979, p. 21

Verse 76.

rājan samsmritya samsmritya
samvādam imam adbhutam
keśavārjunayoh punyam
hrishyāmi ca muhur muhuh

Verse 77.

tac ca samsmritya samsmritya
rūpam aty-adbhutam hareh
vismayo me mahān rājan
hrishyāmi ca punah punah

      "Sa˝" means good, "jaya" means to gain victory. So the name of Sa˝jaya denotes that he has gained a good and righteous victory. Of pure and pious disposition, Sa˝jaya had contributed to the well-being of the world through holy and disinterested actions. - Summer Showers in Brindavan 1979, p. 20

      In order to fulfill the yearning of the bhakta, Hari, the immanent Basic Being of the Universe, will come, in any Form, in any Thing, at any Place. - Dhyana Vahini, p. 28

Verse 78.

 yatra yogeśvarah krishno
yatra pārtho dhanur-dharah
tatra śrīr vijayo bhūtir
dhruvā nītir matir mama

      When the blind king Dhritarāshthra asked, "O Sa˝jaya! Can you tell me how my sons are doing on the battlefield and in what state they will return home?", the wise. Sa˝jaya unhesitatingly replied, "Where the Yogīśvara works in conjunction with Pārtha wielding the Gāndīva, there will lie victory, prosperity, glory and felicity." - Summer Showers in Brindavan 1979, p. 20

      The Gītā is the very voice of Lord Krishna. The fact that it has provided consolation and liberation to millions of men is evidence of its Divine Origin. A lesser person could not have given it that authenticity.

The way it begins and the way it ends gives the clue to the subject it expounds. The very first verse starts with the words, "dharma-kshetre kuru-kshetre ...", the word dharma being the leading word. The last verse of the final Eighteenth Chapter speaks of "yatra yogeśvarah krishno" and this word, "yogeśvarah" sums up the dharma that is taught. Thus, it is clear that the objective of the teaching in the Gītā is just this: "Remember dharma; practice dharma". How significant is this word! All śāstras are engaged in demarcating and defining the nature and subtle characteristics of dharma. The Gītā incorporates this study and this analysis. It is a textbook of dharma, in all its aspects. It discusses all the principles underlying dharma. - Gītā Vahini, pp. 2-3

      The last sloka of the Gītā says ..., "Where there is Krishna the supreme Yogī, and where there is also Arjuna bearing his bow, there victory for truth and justice is assured." This verse assures victory not only when the Mahābhārata Arjuna wields the bow in the presence of Krishna. Everyone of you can be Arjuna and wield the bow and achieve victory. For the bow is just the symbol of courage and faith, of high resolve and undaunted calibre. And how can you become Arjuna? Arjuna means white, pure, unsullied, without blemish. As soon as you become that and hold the bow (the Upanishads declare that the pranava or Om is the arrow and God is the target), Krishna is ready with His presence, for He is every-where at every moment. There is no reason to invite Him or install Him. He will answer from your very heart. - Sathya Sai Speaks VIII, pp. 110-11


 Thus ends the Bhagavad Gītā - The Divine Song, as taken down by Śrīla Vyāsadeva in the Mahābhārata; Bhīshma Parva, chapter 23-40, the original Sanskrit verses, word for word translated and with comments taken from the writings of
Bhagavān Śrī Sathya Sai Baba.

" OM - Śrī Sai Gītā Bodhakaya Namah "
" OM - Who is the Teacher of the Bhagavad Gītā (the Song of the Lord) " 


Śrī Sathya Sai Ashtottarashata Nama Ratnamala
A chain of Gems, being the 108 Names of 
Bhagavān Śrī Sathya Sai Baba
to read along]


With gratitude and thankfulness to 'The Bhagavad Gītā of Order',
Anand Aadhar Prabhu. 

*The two paintings of Lord Krishna and Arjuna in battle are by: Sriman Yogendra Rastogi, India




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